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The Opulence and Sweetness of Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa

Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura gives the following summary of the twenty-first chapter. In this chapter Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu fully describes Kṛṣṇaloka, the spiritual sky, the Causal Ocean and the material world, which consists of innumerable universes. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu then describes Lord Brahmā’s interview with Kṛṣṇa at Dvārakā and the Lord’s curbing the pride of Brahmā. There is also a description of one of Kṛṣṇa’s pastimes with Brahmā. In this chapter the author of the Caitanya-caritāmṛta has presented some nice poems about the pastimes of Kṛṣṇa and Kṛṣṇa’s superexcellent beauty. Throughout the rest of the chapter, our intimate relationship (sambandha) with Kṛṣṇa is described.

Text 1: Offering my obeisances unto Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, let me describe a particle of His opulence and sweetness. He is most valuable for a fallen conditioned soul bereft of spiritual knowledge, and He is the only shelter for those who do not know the real goal of life.

Text 2: All glories to Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu! All glories to Nityānanda Prabhu! All glories to Advaita Ācārya! And all glories to all the devotees of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu!

Text 3: Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu continued, “All the transcendental forms of the Lord are situated in the spiritual sky. They preside over spiritual planets in that abode, but there is no counting those Vaikuṇṭha planets.

Text 4: “The breadth of each Vaikuṇṭha planet is described as eight miles multiplied by one hundred, by one thousand, by ten thousand, by one hundred thousand and by ten million. In other words, each Vaikuṇṭha planet is expanded beyond our ability to measure.

Text 5: “Each Vaikuṇṭha planet is very large, and each is made of spiritual bliss. The inhabitants are all associates of the Supreme Lord, and they have full opulence like the Lord Himself. This is how the Vaikuṇṭha planets are all situated.

Text 6: “Since all the Vaikuṇṭha planets are located in a certain corner of the spiritual sky, who can measure the spiritual sky?

Text 7: “The shape of the spiritual sky is compared to a lotus flower. The topmost region of that flower is called the whorl, and within that whorl is Kṛṣṇa’s abode. The petals of the spiritual lotus flower consist of many Vaikuṇṭha planets.

Text 8: “Each Vaikuṇṭha planet is full of spiritual bliss, complete opulence and space, and each is inhabited by incarnations. If Lord Brahmā and Lord Śiva cannot estimate the length and breadth of the spiritual sky and the Vaikuṇṭha planets, how can ordinary living entities begin to imagine them?

Text 9: ‘O supreme great one! O Supreme Personality of Godhead! O Supersoul, master of all mystic power! Your pastimes are taking place continuously in these worlds, but who can estimate where, how and when You are employing Your spiritual energy and performing Your pastimes? No one can understand the mystery of these activities.’

Text 10: “The spiritual qualities of Kṛṣṇa are also unlimited. Great personalities like Lord Brahmā, Lord Śiva and the four Kumāras cannot estimate the spiritual qualities of the Lord.

Text 11: ‘In time, great scientists may be able to count all the atoms of the universe, all the stars and planets in the sky, and all the particles of snow, but who among them can count the unlimited transcendental qualities of the Supreme Personality of Godhead? He descends on the surface of the globe for the benefit of all living entities.’

Text 12: “To say nothing of Lord Brahmā, even Lord Ananta, who has thousands of heads, cannot reach the end of the Lord’s transcendental qualities, even though He is continuously chanting their praises.

Text 13: ‘If I, Lord Brahmā, and your elder brothers, the great saints and sages, cannot understand the limits of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is full of various energies, who else can understand them? Although constantly chanting about His transcendental qualities, the thousand-hooded Lord Śeṣa has not yet reached the end of the Lord’s activities.’

Text 14: “To say nothing of Anantadeva, even Lord Kṛṣṇa Himself cannot find an end to His own transcendental qualities. Indeed, He Himself is always eager to know them.

Text 15: ‘My Lord, You are unlimited. Even the predominating deities of the higher planetary systems, including Lord Brahmā, cannot find Your limitations. Nor can You Yourself ascertain the limit of Your qualities. Like atoms in the sky, there are multi-universes with seven coverings, and these are rotating in due course of time. All the experts in Vedic understanding are searching for You by eliminating the material elements. In this way, searching and searching, they come to the conclusion that everything is complete in You. Thus You are the resort of everything. This is the conclusion of all Vedic experts.’

Text 16: “Apart from all argument, logic and negative or positive processes, when Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa was present as the Supreme Personality of Godhead at Vṛndāvana, no one could find a limit to His potencies by studying His characteristics and activities.

Text 17: “At Vṛndāvana, the Lord immediately created all material and spiritual planets in one moment. Indeed, all of them were created with their predominating deities.

Text 18: “We do not hear of such wonderful things anywhere else. Simply by one’s hearing of those incidents, one’s consciousness is agitated and cleansed.

Text 19: “According to Śukadeva Gosvāmī, Kṛṣṇa had unlimited calves and cowherd boys with Him. No one could count their actual number.

Text 20: “Each of the cowherd boys was tending calves to the extent of a koṭi, arbuda, śaṅkha and padma. That is the way of counting.

Text 21: “All the cowherd boys had unlimited calves. Similarly, their canes, flutes, lotus flowers, horns, garments and ornaments were all unlimited. They cannot be limited by writing about them.

Text 22: “The cowherd boys then became four-handed Nārāyaṇas, predominating Deities of Vaikuṇṭha planets. All the separate Brahmās from different universes began to offer their prayers unto the Lords.

Text 23: “All these transcendental bodies emanated from the body of Kṛṣṇa, and within a second They all entered again into His body.

Text 24: “When the Lord Brahmā from this universe saw this pastime, he was astonished and struck with wonder. After offering his prayers, he gave the following conclusion.

Text 25: “Lord Brahmā said, ‘If someone says that he knows everything about Kṛṣṇa’s opulence, let him think that way. But as far as I am concerned, with my body and mind I consider it in this way.

Text 26: ‘My Lord, Your opulence is like an unlimited ocean of nectar, and it is verbally and mentally impossible for me to realize even a drop of that ocean.

Text 27: ‘There are people who say, “I know everything about Kṛṣṇa.” Let them think that way. As far as I am concerned, I do not wish to speak very much about this matter. O my Lord, let me say this much. As far as Your opulences are concerned, they are all beyond the reach of my mind, body and words.’

Text 28: “Let the glories of Lord Kṛṣṇa be! Who could be aware of all of them? His abode, Vṛndāvana, has many wonderful opulences. Just try to see them all.

Text 29: “According to the revelations of revealed scripture, Vṛndāvana extends only sixteen krośas [thirty-two miles]. Nonetheless, all the Vaikuṇṭha planets and innumerable universes are located in one corner of this tract.

Text 30: “No one can estimate the opulence of Kṛṣṇa. That is unlimited. However, just as one sees the moon through the branches of a tree, I wish to give a little indication.”

Text 31: While describing the transcendental opulences of Kṛṣṇa, the ocean of opulence manifested in the mind of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, and His mind and senses were immersed in this ocean. Thus He was perplexed.

Text 32: Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu personally recited the following verse from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, and to relish the meaning, He began to explain it Himself.

Text 33: ‘The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Kṛṣṇa, is the master of the three worlds and the three principal demigods [Brahmā, Viṣṇu and Śiva]. No one is equal to or greater than Him. By His spiritual potency, known as svārājya-lakṣmī, all His desires are fulfilled. While offering their dues and presents in worship, the predominating deities of all the planets touch the lotus feet of the Lord with their helmets. Thus they offer prayers to the Lord.’

Text 34: “Kṛṣṇa is the original Supreme Personality of Godhead; therefore He is the greatest of all. No one is equal to Him, nor is anyone greater than Him.

Text 35: ‘Kṛṣṇa, known as Govinda, is the supreme controller. He has an eternal, blissful, spiritual body. He is the origin of all. He has no other origin, for He is the prime cause of all causes.’

Text 36: “The primary predominating deities of this material creation are Lord Brahmā, Lord Śiva and Lord Viṣṇu. Nonetheless, they simply carry out the orders of Lord Kṛṣṇa, who is master of them all.

Text 37: “[Lord Brahmā said:] ‘Following the will of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, I create, Lord Śiva destroys, and He Himself in the form of Kṣīrodakaśāyī Viṣṇu maintains all the affairs of material nature. Thus the supreme controller of the three modes of material nature is Lord Viṣṇu.’

Text 38: “This is only a general description. Please try to understand another meaning of tryadhīśa. The three puruṣa incarnations of Viṣṇu are the original cause of the material creation.

Text 39: “Mahā-Viṣṇu, Padmanābha and Kṣīrodakaśāyī Viṣṇu are the Supersouls of all subtle and gross existences.

Text 40: “Although Mahā-Viṣṇu, Padmanābha and Kṣīrodakaśāyī Viṣṇu are all shelters and controllers of the entire universe, They are nonetheless but plenary portions or portions of the plenary portions of Kṛṣṇa. Therefore He is the original Personality of Godhead.

Text 41: ‘The Brahmās and other lords of the mundane worlds appear from the pores of Mahā-Viṣṇu and remain alive for the duration of His one exhalation. I adore the primeval Lord, Govinda, of whom Mahā-Viṣṇu is a portion of a plenary portion.’

Text 42: “This is the middle meaning. Now please hear the confidential meaning. Lord Kṛṣṇa has three places of residence, which are well known from the revealed scriptures.

Text 43: “The internal abode is called Goloka Vṛndāvana. It is there that Lord Kṛṣṇa’s personal friends, associates, father and mother live.

Text 44: “Vṛndāvana is the storehouse of Kṛṣṇa’s mercy and the sweet opulences of conjugal love. That is where the spiritual energy, working as a maidservant, exhibits the rāsa dance, the quintessence of all pastimes.

Text 45: ‘Vṛndāvana-dhāma is very soft due to the mercy of the Supreme Lord, and it is especially opulent due to conjugal love. The transcendental glories of the son of Mahārāja Nanda are exhibited here. Under the circumstances, not the least anxiety is awakened within us.’

Text 46: “Below the Vṛndāvana planet is the spiritual sky, which is known as Viṣṇuloka. In Viṣṇuloka there are innumerable Vaikuṇṭha planets controlled by Nārāyaṇa and innumerable other expansions of Kṛṣṇa.

Text 47: “The spiritual sky, which is full in all six opulences, is the intermediate residence of Lord Kṛṣṇa. It is there that an unlimited number of forms of Kṛṣṇa enjoy Their pastimes.

Text 48: “Innumerable Vaikuṇṭha planets, which are just like different rooms of a treasure-house, are all there, filled with all opulences. Those unlimited planets house the Lord’s eternal associates, who are also enriched with the six opulences.

Text 49: ‘Below the planet named Goloka Vṛndāvana are the planets known as Devī-dhāma, Maheśa-dhāma and Hari-dhāma. These are opulent in different ways. They are managed by the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Govinda, the original Lord. I offer my obeisances unto Him.’

Text 50: ‘Between the spiritual and the material world is a body of water known as the river Virajā. This water is generated from the bodily perspiration of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is known as Vedāṅga. Thus the river flows.’

Text 51: ‘Beyond the river Virajā is the spiritual nature, which is indestructible, eternal, inexhaustible and unlimited. It is the supreme abode, consisting of three fourths of the Lord’s opulences. It is known as paravyoma, the spiritual sky.’

Text 52: “On the other side of the river Virajā is the external abode, which is full of unlimited universes, each containing unlimited atmospheres.

Text 53: “The abode of the external energy is called Devī-dhāma, and its inhabitants are the conditioned souls. It is there that the material energy, Durgā, resides with many opulent maidservants.

Text 54: “Kṛṣṇa is the supreme proprietor of all dhāmas, including Goloka-dhāma, Vaikuṇṭha-dhāma and Devī-dhāma. The paravyoma and Goloka-dhāma are beyond Devī-dhāma, this material world.

Text 55: “The spiritual world is considered to be three fourths of the energy and opulence of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, whereas this material world is only one fourth of that energy. That is our understanding.

Text 56: ‘Because it consists of three fourths of the Lord’s energy, the spiritual world is called tri-pād-bhūta. Being a manifestation of one fourth of the Lord’s energy, the material world is called eka-pāda.’

Text 57: “The three-fourths part of Lord Kṛṣṇa’s energy is beyond our speaking power. Let us therefore hear elaborately about the remaining one fourth of His energy.

Text 58: “Actually it is very difficult to ascertain the number of universes. Every universe has its separate Lord Brahmā and Lord Śiva, who are known as permanent governors. Therefore there is also no counting them.

Text 59: “Once, when Kṛṣṇa was ruling Dvārakā, Lord Brahmā came to see Him, and the doorman immediately informed Lord Kṛṣṇa of Brahmā’s arrival.

Text 60: “When Kṛṣṇa was so informed, He immediately asked the doorman, ‘Which Brahmā? What is his name?’ The doorman therefore returned and questioned Lord Brahmā.

Text 61: “When the doorman asked, ‘Which Brahmā?’ Lord Brahmā was surprised. He told the doorman, ‘Please go inform Lord Kṛṣṇa that I am the four-headed Brahmā who is the father of the four Kumāras.’

Text 62: “The doorman then informed Lord Kṛṣṇa of Lord Brahmā’s description, and Lord Kṛṣṇa gave him permission to enter. The doorman escorted Lord Brahmā in, and as soon as Brahmā saw Lord Kṛṣṇa, he offered obeisances at His lotus feet.

Text 63: “After being worshiped by Lord Brahmā, Lord Kṛṣṇa also honored him with suitable words. Then Lord Kṛṣṇa asked him, ‘Why have you come here?’

Text 64: “Being questioned, Lord Brahmā immediately replied, ‘Later I shall tell You why I have come. First of all there is a doubt in my mind which I wish You would kindly dissipate.

Text 65: ‘Why did you inquire which Brahmā had come to see You? What is the purpose of such an inquiry? Is there any other Brahmā besides me within this universe?’

Text 66: “Upon hearing this, Śrī Kṛṣṇa smiled and immediately meditated. Unlimited Brahmās arrived instantly.

Text 67: “These Brahmās had different numbers of heads. Some had ten heads, some twenty, some a hundred, some a thousand, some ten thousand, some a hundred thousand, some ten million and others a hundred million. No one can count the number of faces they had.

Text 68: “There also arrived many Lord Śivas with various heads numbering one hundred thousand and ten million. Many Indras also arrived, and they had hundreds of thousands of eyes all over their bodies.

Text 69: “When the four-headed Brahmā of this universe saw all these opulences of Kṛṣṇa, he became very much bewildered and considered himself a rabbit among many elephants.

Text 70: “All the Brahmās who came to see Kṛṣṇa offered their respects at His lotus feet, and when they did this, their helmets touched His lotus feet.

Text 71: “No one can estimate the inconceivable potency of Kṛṣṇa. All the Brahmās who were there were resting in the one body of Kṛṣṇa.

Text 72: “When all the helmets struck together at Kṛṣṇa’s lotus feet, there was a tumultuous sound. It appeared that the helmets themselves were offering prayers unto Kṛṣṇa’s lotus feet.

Text 73: “With folded hands, all the Brahmās and Śivas began to offer prayers unto Lord Kṛṣṇa, saying, ‘O Lord, You have shown me a great favor. I have been able to see Your lotus feet.’

Text 74: “All of them then said, ‘It is my great fortune, Lord, that You have called me, thinking of me as Your servant. Now let me know what Your order is so that I may carry it on my heads.’

Text 75: “Lord Kṛṣṇa replied, ‘Since I wanted to see all of you together, I have called all of you here.

Text 76: ‘All of you should be happy. Is there any fear from the demons?’

Text 77: ‘Whatever burden was upon the earth You have taken away by descending to that planet.’

Text 78: “This is the proof of Dvārakā’s opulence: all the Brahmās thought, ‘Kṛṣṇa is now staying in my jurisdiction.’

Text 79: “Thus the opulence of Dvārakā was perceived by each and every one of them. Although they were all assembled together, no one could see anyone but himself.

Text 80: “Lord Kṛṣṇa then bade farewell to all the Brahmās there, and after offering their obeisances, they all returned to their respective homes.

Text 81: “After observing all these opulences, the four-headed Brahmā of this universe was astonished. He again came before the lotus feet of Kṛṣṇa and offered Him obeisances.

Text 82: “Brahmā then said, ‘Whatever I formerly decided about my knowledge I have just now had personally verified.

Text 83: ‘There are people who say, “I know everything about Kṛṣṇa.” Let them think in that way. As far as I am concerned, I do not wish to speak very much about this matter. O my Lord, let me say this much. As far as Your opulences are concerned, they are all beyond the reach of my mind, body and words.’

Text 84: “Kṛṣṇa said, ‘Your particular universe has a diameter of four billion miles; therefore it is the smallest of all the universes. Consequently you have only four heads.

Text 85: ‘Some of the universes are one billion yojanas in diameter, some one trillion, some ten trillion and some one hundred trillion yojanas. Thus they are almost unlimited in area.

Text 86: ‘According to the size of the universe, there are so many heads on the body of Brahmā. In this way I maintain innumerable universes [brahmāṇḍas].

Text 87: ‘No one can measure the length and breadth of the one fourth of My energy manifested in the material world. Who then can measure the three fourths that is manifested in the spiritual world?’

Text 88: ‘Beyond the river Virajā is the spiritual nature, which is indestructible, eternal, inexhaustible and unlimited. It is the supreme abode, consisting of three fourths of the Lord’s opulences. It is known as paravyoma, the spiritual sky.”’

Text 89: “In this way Lord Kṛṣṇa bade farewell to the four-headed Brahmā of this universe. We may thus understand that no one can calculate the extent of Kṛṣṇa’s energies.

Text 90: “There is a very deep meaning in the word ‘try-adhīśvara,’ which indicates that Kṛṣṇa possesses three different lokas, or natures.

Text 91: “The three lokas are Gokula (Goloka), Mathurā and Dvārakā. Kṛṣṇa lives eternally in these three places.

Text 92: “These three places are full of internal potencies, and Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is their sole proprietor.

Texts 93-94: “As previously mentioned, the jewels on the helmets of all the predominating deities of all the universes and Vaikuṇṭha planets touched the throne and the lotus feet of the Lord when those deities all offered obeisances.

Text 95: “When the gems on the helmets of all the predominating deities collided before the throne and the Lord’s lotus feet, there was a jingling sound, which seemed like prayers offered by the helmets at Kṛṣṇa’s lotus feet.

Text 96: “Kṛṣṇa is thus situated eternally in His spiritual potency, and the opulence of that spiritual potency is called ṣaḍ-aiśvarya, indicating six kinds of opulences.

Text 97: “Because He possesses the spiritual potencies, which fulfill all His desires, Kṛṣṇa is accepted as the Supreme Personality of Godhead. This is the Vedic version.

Text 98: “The unlimited potencies of Kṛṣṇa are just like an ocean of nectar. Since one cannot bathe within that ocean, I have only touched a drop of it.”

Text 99: When Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu was describing the opulences and spiritual potencies of Kṛṣṇa in this way, there was an awakening of love of Kṛṣṇa within Him. His mind became immersed in the sweetness of conjugal love, and He quoted the following verse from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam.

Text 100: ‘To exhibit the strength of His own spiritual potency, Lord Kṛṣṇa manifested a form just suitable for His pastimes in the material world. This form was wonderful even for Him and was the supreme abode of the wealth of good fortune. Its limbs were so beautiful that they increased the beauty of the ornaments worn on different parts of His body.’

Text 101: “Lord Kṛṣṇa has many pastimes, of which His pastimes as a human being are the best. His form as a human being is the supreme transcendental form. In this form He is a cowherd boy. He carries a flute in His hand, and His youth is new. He is also an expert dancer. All this is just suitable for His pastimes as a human being.

Text 102: “My dear Sanātana, the sweet, attractive transcendental form of Kṛṣṇa is so nice. Just try to understand it. Even a fractional understanding of Kṛṣṇa’s beauty can merge all three worlds in the ocean of love. He attracts all living entities within the three worlds.

Text 103: “The transcendental form of Kṛṣṇa is shown to the world by Lord Kṛṣṇa’s internal, spiritual energy, which is a transformation of pure goodness. This jewellike form is the most confidential treasure of the devotees. This form is manifested from Kṛṣṇa’s eternal pastimes.

Text 104: “The wonderful form of Kṛṣṇa in His personal feature is so great that it attracts even Kṛṣṇa to taste His own association. Indeed, Kṛṣṇa becomes very eager to taste it. Total beauty, knowledge, wealth, strength, fame and renunciation are the six opulences of Kṛṣṇa. He is eternally situated in His opulences.

Text 105: “Ornaments caress that body, but the transcendental body of Kṛṣṇa is so beautiful that it beautifies the ornaments He wears. Therefore Kṛṣṇa’s body is said to be the ornament of ornaments. Enhancing the wonderful beauty of Kṛṣṇa is His three-curved style of standing. Above all these beautiful features, Kṛṣṇa’s eyes dance and move obliquely, acting like arrows to pierce the minds of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī and the gopīs. When the arrow succeeds in hitting its target, their minds become agitated.

Text 106: “The beauty of Kṛṣṇa’s body is so attractive that it attracts not only the demigods and other living entities within this material world but the personalities of the spiritual sky as well, including the Nārāyaṇas, who are expansions of Kṛṣṇa’s personality. The minds of the Nārāyaṇas are thus attracted by the beauty of Kṛṣṇa’s body. In addition, the goddesses of fortune [Lakṣmīs], who are the wives of the Nārāyaṇas and are the women described in the Vedas as most chaste, are also attracted by the wonderful beauty of Kṛṣṇa.

Text 107: “Favoring the gopīs, Kṛṣṇa rides on the chariots of their minds, and just to receive loving service from them, He attracts their minds like Cupid. Therefore He is also called Madana-mohana, the attractor of Cupid. Cupid has five arrows, representing form, taste, smell, sound and touch. Kṛṣṇa is the owner of these five arrows, and with His Cupid-like beauty He conquers the minds of the gopīs, though they are very proud of their superexcellent beauty. Becoming a new Cupid, Kṛṣṇa attracts their minds and engages in the rāsa dance.

Text 108: “When Lord Kṛṣṇa wanders in the forest of Vṛndāvana with His friends on an equal level, there are innumerable cows grazing. This is another of the Lord’s blissful enjoyments. When He plays on His flute, all living entities — including trees, plants, animals and human beings — tremble and are saturated with jubilation. Tears flow constantly from their eyes.

Text 109: “Kṛṣṇa wears a pearl necklace that appears like a chain of white herons around His neck. The peacock feather in His hair appears like a rainbow, and His yellow garments appear like lightning in the sky. Kṛṣṇa appears like a newly risen cloud, and the gopīs appear like newly grown grains in the field. Constant rains of nectarean pastimes fall upon these newly grown grains, and it seems that the gopīs are receiving beams of life from Kṛṣṇa, exactly as grains receive life from the rains.

Text 110: “The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Kṛṣṇa, is full in all six opulences, including His attractive beauty, which engages Him in conjugal love with the gopīs. Such sweetness is the quintessence of His qualities. Śukadeva Gosvāmī, the son of Vyāsadeva, has described these pastimes of Kṛṣṇa throughout Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. Hearing the descriptions, the devotees become mad with love of God.”

Text 111: Just as the women of Mathurā ecstatically described the fortune of the gopīs of Vṛndāvana and the transcendental qualities of Kṛṣṇa, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu described the different mellows of Kṛṣṇa and became overwhelmed with ecstatic love. Grasping the hand of Sanātana Gosvāmī, He recited the following verse.

Text 112: ‘What austerities must the gopīs have performed? With their eyes they always drink the nectar of the form of Lord Kṛṣṇa, which is the essence of loveliness and is not to be equaled or surpassed. That loveliness is the only abode of beauty, fame and opulence. It is self-perfect, ever fresh and unique.’

Text 113: “The bodily beauty of Śrī Kṛṣṇa is like a wave in the ocean of eternal youth. In that great ocean is the whirlpool of the awakening of ecstatic love. The vibration of Kṛṣṇa’s flute is like a whirlwind, and the flickering minds of the gopīs are like straws and dry leaves. After they fall down in the whirlwind, they never rise again but remain eternally at the lotus feet of Kṛṣṇa.

Text 114: “O my dear friend, what severe austerities have the gopīs performed to drink His transcendental beauty and sweetness through their eyes in complete fulfillment? Thus they glorify their births, bodies and minds.

Text 115: “The sweetness of Kṛṣṇa’s beauty enjoyed by the gopīs is unparalleled. Nothing is equal to or greater than such ecstatic sweetness. Even the predominating Deities of the Vaikuṇṭha planets, the Nārāyaṇas, do not possess such sweetness. Indeed, none of the incarnations of Kṛṣṇa up to Nārāyaṇa possess such transcendental beauty.

Text 116: “The vivid evidence in this regard is that the dearest consort of Nārāyaṇa, the goddess of fortune, who is worshiped by all chaste women, gave up everything in her desire to enjoy Kṛṣṇa, being captivated by His unparalleled sweetness. Thus she took a great vow and underwent severe austerities.

Text 117: “The quintessence of Kṛṣṇa’s sweet bodily luster is so perfect that there is no perfection above it. He is the immutable mine of all transcendental qualities. In His other manifestations and personal expansions, there is only a partial exhibition of such qualities. We understand all His personal expansions in this way.

Text 118: “Both the gopīs and Kṛṣṇa are complete. The gopīs’ ecstatic love is like a mirror that becomes newer and newer at every moment and reflects Kṛṣṇa’s bodily luster and sweetness. Thus competition increases. Since neither give up, their pastimes become newer and newer, and both sides constantly increase.

Text 119: “The transcendental mellows generated from the dealings between the gopīs and Kṛṣṇa cannot be tasted by means of fruitive activity, yogic austerities, speculative knowledge, regulative devotional service, mantra-yoga or meditation. This sweetness can be tasted only through the spontaneous love of liberated persons who chant the holy names with great ecstatic love.

Text 120: “Such ecstatic transactions between Kṛṣṇa and the gopīs are possible only in Vṛndāvana, which is full of the opulences of transcendental love. The form of Kṛṣṇa is the original source of all transcendental qualities. It is like a mine of gems. The opulences belonging to all the personal expansions of Kṛṣṇa are to be understood to be bestowed by Kṛṣṇa; therefore Kṛṣṇa is the original source and shelter of everyone.

Text 121: “Beauty, humility, mercy, merit, patience and expert intelligence are all manifested in Kṛṣṇa. But besides these, Kṛṣṇa has other qualities like good behavior, mildness and magnanimity. He also performs welfare activities for the whole world. All these qualities are not visible in expansions like Nārāyaṇa.

Text 122: “After seeing Kṛṣṇa, various people criticize the blinking of their eyes. In Vṛndāvana especially, all the gopīs criticize Lord Brahmā because of this defect in the eyes.” Then Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu recited some verses from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam and explained them vividly, thus enjoying the taste of transcendental sweetness with great happiness.

Text 123: ‘All men and women were accustomed to enjoying the beauty of the shining face of Lord Kṛṣṇa, as well as His shark-shaped earrings swinging on His ears. His beautiful features, His cheeks and His playful smiles all combined to form a constant festival for the eyes, and the blinking of the eyes became obstacles that impeded one from seeing that beauty. For this reason, men and women became very angry at the creator [Lord Brahmā].’

Text 124: ‘O Kṛṣṇa, when You go to the forest during the day and we do not see Your sweet face, which is surrounded by beautiful curly hair, half a second becomes as long as an entire age for us. And we consider the creator, who has put eyelids on the eyes we use for seeing You, to be simply a fool.’

Text 125: “Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is identical with the Vedic hymn known as the Kāma-gāyatrī, which is composed of twenty-four and a half syllables. Those syllables are compared to moons that arise in Kṛṣṇa. Thus all three worlds are filled with desire.

Text 126: “The face of Kṛṣṇa is the king of all moons, and the body of Kṛṣṇa is the throne. Thus the king governs a society of moons.

Text 127: “Kṛṣṇa has two cheeks that shine like glowing gems. Both are considered full moons. His forehead is considered a half moon, and the spot of sandalwood there is considered a full moon.

Text 128: “His fingernails are many full moons, and they dance on the flute in His hands. Their song is the melody of that flute. His toenails are also many full moons, and they dance on the ground. Their song is the jingling of His ankle bells.

Text 129: “Kṛṣṇa’s face is the enjoyer king. That full-moon face makes His shark-shaped earrings and lotus eyes dance. His eyebrows are like bows, and His eyes are like arrows. His ears are fixed on the string of that bow, and when His eyes spread to His ears, He pierces the hearts of the gopīs.

Text 130: “The dancing features of His face surpass all other full moons and expand the marketplace of full moons. Although priceless, the nectar of Kṛṣṇa’s face is distributed to everyone. Some purchase the moonrays of His sweet smiles, and others purchase the nectar of His lips. Thus He pleases everyone.

Text 131: “Kṛṣṇa has two reddish, widely spread eyes. These are ministers of the king, and they subdue the pride of Cupid, who also has beautiful eyes. That face of Govinda, which is full of happiness, is the home of the pastimes of beauty, and it is very pleasing to everyone’s eyes.

Text 132: “If by devotional service one gets the results of pious activities and sees Lord Kṛṣṇa’s face, what can he relish with only two eyes? His greed and thirst increase twofold by seeing the nectarean face of Kṛṣṇa. Due to his inability to sufficiently drink that nectar, he becomes very unhappy and criticizes the creator for not having given more than two eyes.

Text 133: “When the onlooker of Kṛṣṇa’s face becomes dissatisfied in this way, he thinks, ‘Why didn’t the creator give me thousands and millions of eyes? Why has he given me only two? Even these two eyes are disturbed by blinking, which keeps me from continuously seeing Kṛṣṇa’s face.’ Thus one accuses the creator of being dry and tasteless due to engaging in severe austerities. ‘The creator is only a dry manufacturer. He does not know how to create and set things in their proper places.

Text 134: ‘The creator says, “Let those who will see Kṛṣṇa’s beautiful face have two eyes.” Just see the lack of consideration exhibited by this person posing as a creator! If the creator took my advice, he would give millions of eyes to the person who intends to see Śrī Kṛṣṇa’s face. If the creator will accept this advice, then I would say that he is competent in his work.’

Text 135: “The transcendental form of Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa is compared to an ocean. A particularly extraordinary vision is the moon above that ocean — Śrī Kṛṣṇa’s face — and an even more extraordinary vision is His smile, which is sweeter than sweet and is like shining beams of moonlight.” While speaking of these things with Sanātana Gosvāmī, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu began to remember one thing after another. Moving His hands in ecstasy, He recited a verse.

Text 136: ‘O my Lord, the transcendental body of Kṛṣṇa is very sweet, and His face is even sweeter than His body. But His soft smile, which has the fragrance of honey, is sweeter still.’

Text 137: “My dear Sanātana, the sweetness of Kṛṣṇa’s personality is just like an ocean of ambrosia. Although My mind is now afflicted by convulsive diseases and I wish to drink that entire ocean, the repressive physician does not allow Me to drink even one drop.

Text 138: “Kṛṣṇa’s body is a city of attractive features, and it is sweeter than sweet. His face, which is like the moon, is sweeter still. And the supremely sweet gentle smile on that moonlike face is like rays of moonshine.

Text 139: “The beauty of Kṛṣṇa’s smile is the sweetest feature of all. His smile is like a full moon that spreads its rays throughout the three worlds — Goloka Vṛndāvana, the spiritual sky of the Vaikuṇṭhas, and Devī-dhāma, the material world. Thus Kṛṣṇa’s shining beauty spreads in all ten directions.

Text 140: “His slight smiling and fragrant illumination are compared to camphor, which enters the sweetness of His lips. That sweetness is transformed and enters into space as vibrations from the holes of His flute.

Text 141: “The sound of Kṛṣṇa’s flute spreads in the four directions. Even though Kṛṣṇa vibrates His flute within this universe, its sound pierces the universal covering and goes to the spiritual sky. Thus the vibration enters the ears of all inhabitants. It especially enters Goloka Vṛndāvana-dhāma and attracts the minds of the young damsels of Vrajabhūmi, bringing them forcibly to where Kṛṣṇa is present.

Text 142: “The vibration of Kṛṣṇa’s flute is very aggressive, and it breaks the vows of all chaste women. Indeed, its vibration takes them forcibly from the laps of their husbands. The vibration of His flute attracts even the goddesses of fortune in the Vaikuṇṭha planets, to say nothing of the poor damsels of Vṛndāvana.

Text 143: “The vibration of His flute slackens the knots of their underwear even in front of their husbands. Thus the gopīs are forced to abandon their household duties and come before Lord Kṛṣṇa. In this way all social etiquette, shame and fear are vanquished. The vibration of His flute causes all women to dance.

Text 144: “The vibration of His flute is just like a bird that creates a nest within the ears of the gopīs and always remains prominent there, not allowing any other sound to enter their ears. Indeed, the gopīs cannot hear anything else, nor are they able to concentrate on anything else, not even to give a suitable reply. Such are the effects of the vibration of Lord Kṛṣṇa’s flute.”

Text 145: Resuming His external consciousness, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu told Sanātana Gosvāmī, “I have not spoken of what I intended. Lord Kṛṣṇa is very merciful to you because by bewildering My mind He has revealed His personal opulence and sweetness. He has caused you to hear all these things from Me for your understanding.

Text 146: “Since I have become a madman, I am saying one thing instead of another. This is because I am being carried away by the waves of the nectarean ocean of Lord Kṛṣṇa’s transcendental sweetness.”

Text 147: Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu then remained silent for a moment. Finally, adjusting things within His mind, He again spoke to Sanātana Gosvāmī.

Text 148: If anyone gets an opportunity to hear about the sweetness of Kṛṣṇa in this chapter of Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta, he will certainly be eligible to float in the transcendentally blissful ocean of love of God.

Text 149: Praying at the lotus feet of Śrī Rūpa and Śrī Raghunātha, always desiring their mercy, I, Kṛṣṇadāsa, narrate Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta, following in their footsteps.

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