TEXT 1: Arjuna said: O Janārdana, O Keśava, why do You want to engage me in this ghastly warfare, if You think that intelligence is better than fruitive work?
TEXT 2: My intelligence is bewildered by Your equivocal instructions. Therefore, please tell me decisively which will be most beneﬁcial for me.
TEXT 3: The Supreme Personality of Godhead said: O sinless Arjuna, I have already explained that there are two classes of men who try to realize the self. Some are inclined to understand it by empirical, philosophical speculation, and others by devotional service.
TEXT 4: Not by merely abstaining from work can one achieve freedom from reaction, nor by renunciation alone can one attain perfection.
TEXT 5: Everyone is forced to act helplessly according to the qualities he has acquired from the modes of material nature; therefore no one can refrain from doing something, not even for a moment.
TEXT 6: One who restrains the senses of action but whose mind dwells on sense objects certainly deludes himself and is called a pretender.
TEXT 7: On the other hand, if a sincere person tries to control the active senses by the mind and begins karma-yoga [in Kṛṣṇa consciousness] without attachment, he is by far superior.
TEXT 8: Perform your prescribed duty, for doing so is better than not working. One cannot even maintain one’s physical body without work.
TEXT 9: Work done as a sacriﬁce for Viṣṇu has to be performed; otherwise work causes bondage in this material world. Therefore, O son of Kuntī, perform your prescribed duties for His satisfaction, and in that way you will always remain free from bondage.
TEXT 10: In the beginning of creation, the Lord of all creatures sent forth generations of men and demigods, along with sacriﬁces for Viṣṇu, and blessed them by saying, “Be thou happy by this yajña [sacriﬁce] because its performance will bestow upon you everything desirable for living happily and achieving liberation.”
TEXT 11: The demigods, being pleased by sacriﬁces, will also please you, and thus, by cooperation between men and demigods, prosperity will reign for all.
TEXT 12: In charge of the various necessities of life, the demigods, being satisﬁed by the performance of yajña [sacriﬁce], will supply all necessities to you. But he who enjoys such gifts without offering them to the demigods in return is certainly a thief.
TEXT 13: The devotees of the Lord are released from all kinds of sins because they eat food which is offered ﬁrst for sacriﬁce. Others, who prepare food for personal sense enjoyment, verily eat only sin.
TEXT 14: All living bodies subsist on food grains, which are produced from rains. Rains are produced by performance of yajña [sacriﬁce], and yajña is born of prescribed duties.
TEXT 15: Regulated activities are prescribed in the Vedas, and the Vedas are directly manifested from the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Consequently the all-pervading Transcendence is eternally situated in acts of sacriﬁce.
TEXT 16: My dear Arjuna, one who does not follow in human life the cycle of sacriﬁce thus established by the Vedas certainly leads a life full of sin. Living only for the satisfaction of the senses, such a person lives in vain.
TEXT 17: But for one who takes pleasure in the Self, whose human life is one of self-realization, and who is satisﬁed in the Self only, fully satiated – for him there is no duty.
TEXT 18: A self-realized man has no purpose to fulﬁll in the discharge of his prescribed duties, nor has he any reason not to perform such work. Nor has he any need to depend on any other living being.
TEXT 19: Therefore, without being attached to the fruits of activities, one should act as a matter of duty, for by working without attachment one attains the Supreme.
TEXT 20: Kings such as Janaka attained perfection solely by performance of prescribed duties. Therefore, just for the sake of educating the people in general, you should perform your work.
TEXT 21: Whatever action a great man performs, common men follow. And whatever standards he sets by exemplary acts, all the world pursues.
TEXT 22: O son of Pṛthā, there is no work prescribed for Me within all the three planetary systems. Nor am I in want of anything, nor have I a need to obtain anything – and yet I am engaged in prescribed duties.
TEXT 23: For if I ever failed to engage in carefully performing prescribed duties, O Pārtha, certainly all men would follow My path.
TEXT 24: If I did not perform prescribed duties, all these worlds would be put to ruination. I would be the cause of creating unwanted population, and I would thereby destroy the peace of all living beings.
TEXT 25: As the ignorant perform their duties with attachment to results, the learned may similarly act, but without attachment, for the sake of leading people on the right path.
TEXT 26: So as not to disrupt the minds of ignorant men attached to the fruitive results of prescribed duties, a learned person should not induce them to stop work. Rather, by working in the spirit of devotion, he should engage them in all sorts of activities [for the gradual development of Kṛṣṇa consciousness].
TEXT 27: The spirit soul bewildered by the inﬂuence of false ego thinks himself the doer of activities that are in actuality carried out by the three modes of material nature.
TEXT 28: One who is in knowledge of the Absolute Truth, O mighty-armed, does not engage himself in the senses and sense gratiﬁcation, knowing well the differences between work in devotion and work for fruitive results.
TEXT 29: Bewildered by the modes of material nature, the ignorant fully engage themselves in material activities and become attached. But the wise should not unsettle them, although these duties are inferior due to the performers’ lack of knowledge.
TEXT 30: Therefore, O Arjuna, surrendering all your works unto Me, with full knowledge of Me, without desires for proﬁt, with no claims to proprietorship, and free from lethargy, ﬁght.
TEXT 31: Those persons who execute their duties according to My injunctions and who follow this teaching faithfully, without envy, become free from the bondage of fruitive actions.
TEXT 32: But those who, out of envy, disregard these teachings and do not follow them regularly are to be considered bereft of all knowledge, befooled, and ruined in their endeavors for perfection.
TEXT 33: Even a man of knowledge acts according to his own nature, for everyone follows the nature he has acquired from the three modes. What can repression accomplish?
TEXT 34: There are principles to regulate attachment and aversion pertaining to the senses and their objects. One should not come under the control of such attachment and aversion, because they are stumbling blocks on the path of self-realization.
TEXT 35: It is far better to discharge one’s prescribed duties, even though faultily, than another’s duties perfectly. Destruction in the course of performing one’s own duty is better than engaging in another’s duties, for to follow another’s path is dangerous.
TEXT 36: Arjuna said: O descendant of Vṛṣṇi, by what is one impelled to sinful acts, even unwillingly, as if engaged by force?
TEXT 37: The Supreme Personality of Godhead said: It is lust only, Arjuna, which is born of contact with the material mode of passion and later transformed into wrath, and which is the all-devouring sinful enemy of this world.
TEXT 38: As ﬁre is covered by smoke, as a mirror is covered by dust, or as the embryo is covered by the womb, the living entity is similarly covered by different degrees of this lust.
TEXT 39: Thus the wise living entity’s pure consciousness becomes covered by his eternal enemy in the form of lust, which is never satisﬁed and which burns like ﬁre.
TEXT 40: The senses, the mind and the intelligence are the sitting places of this lust. Through them lust covers the real knowledge of the living entity and bewilders him.
TEXT 41: Therefore, O Arjuna, best of the Bhāratas, in the very beginning curb this great symbol of sin [lust] by regulating the senses, and slay this destroyer of knowledge and self-realization.
TEXT 42: The working senses are superior to dull matter; mind is higher than the senses; intelligence is still higher than the mind; and he [the soul] is even higher than the intelligence.
TEXT 43: Thus knowing oneself to be transcendental to the material senses, mind and intelligence, O mighty-armed Arjuna, one should steady the mind by deliberate spiritual intelligence [Kṛṣṇa consciousness] and thus – by spiritual strength – conquer this insatiable enemy known as lust.