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Life’s Ultimate Goal — Love of Godhead

The following summary of the twenty-third chapter is given by Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura in his Amṛta-pravāha-bhāṣya. In this chapter Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu describes the symptoms of emotion and love and the awakening of one’s original loving relationship with the Lord, as well as the characteristics of a devotee who has actually attained that stage. He then describes the gradual increase of love of God up to the point of mahābhāva. He then describes the five divisions of attraction and how they continue. He also describes the mellow derived from conjugal love, which is the supreme emotion. Conjugal love is divided into two categories — svakīya and parakīya. Svakīya refers to loving affairs between husband and wife, and parakīya refers to loving affairs between two lovers. There are a number of descriptions in this connection. There is also a description of the sixty-four transcendental qualities of Kṛṣṇa and the twenty-five transcendental qualities of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī.

Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu then describes those candidates who are eligible to taste the mellows of devotional service. Their fundamental natures and their varieties are also described. The Lord also informs Sanātana Gosvāmī about all the confidential paraphernalia of devotional service. He gives a description of Goloka Vṛndāvana, where the Lord is engaged in His eternal pastimes described in the Hari-vaṁśa. There is also an opposing description and a favorable description of keśa-avatāra. All these instructions are mentioned herein.

In this way Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu blessed Sanātana Gosvāmī, placing His hand on his head. Thus Sanātana received the power to describe these subjects in books like Hari-bhakti-vilāsa.

Text 1: The most munificent Supreme Personality of Godhead, known as Gaurakṛṣṇa, distributed to everyone — even the lowest of men — His own confidential treasury in the form of the nectar of love of Himself and the holy name. This was never given to the people at any time before. I therefore offer my respectful obeisances unto Him.

Text 2: All glories to Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu! All glories to Lord Nityānanda! All glories to Advaita Ācārya! And all glories to all the devotees of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu!

Text 3: Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu continued, “Now hear, O Sanātana, about the result of devotional service, which is love of Godhead, life’s ultimate goal. One who hears this description will be enlightened in the transcendental mellows of devotional service.

Text 4: “When affection for Kṛṣṇa becomes deeper, one attains love of Godhead in devotional service. Such a position is called sthāyi-bhāva, permanent enjoyment of the mellows of devotional service to Kṛṣṇa.

Text 5: ‘When devotional service is executed on the transcendental platform of pure goodness, it is like a sun-ray of love for Kṛṣṇa. At such a time, devotional service causes the heart to be softened by various tastes, and one is then situated in bhāva [emotion].’

Text 6: “Bhāva [emotion] has two different symptoms — constitutional and marginal. Now, My dear Sanātana, listen to the symptoms of love.

Text 7: ‘When that bhāva softens the heart completely, becomes endowed with a great feeling of possessiveness in relation to the Lord and becomes very much condensed and intensified, it is called prema [love of Godhead] by learned scholars.

Text 8: ‘When one develops an unflinching sense of ownership or possessiveness in relation to Lord Viṣṇu, or, in other words, when one thinks Viṣṇu and no one else to be the only object of love, such an awakening is called bhakti [devotion] by exalted persons like Bhīṣma, Prahlāda, Uddhava and Nārada.’

Text 9: “If, by good fortune, a living entity develops faith in Kṛṣṇa, he begins to associate with devotees.

Text 10: “When one is encouraged in devotional service by the association of devotees, one becomes free from all unwanted contamination by following the regulative principles and chanting and hearing.

Text 11: “When one is freed from all unwanted contamination, he advances with firm faith. When firm faith in devotional service awakens, a taste for hearing and chanting also awakens.

Text 12: “After taste is awakened, a deep attachment arises, and from that attachment the seed of love for Kṛṣṇa grows in the heart.

Text 13: “When that ecstatic emotional stage intensifies, it is called love of Godhead. Such love is life’s ultimate goal and the reservoir of all pleasure.

Texts 14-15: ‘In the beginning there must be faith. Then one becomes interested in associating with pure devotees. Thereafter one is initiated by the spiritual master and executes the regulative principles under his orders. Thus one is freed from all unwanted habits and becomes firmly fixed in devotional service. Thereafter, one develops taste and attachment. This is the way of sādhana-bhakti, the execution of devotional service according to the regulative principles. Gradually emotions intensify, and finally there is an awakening of love. This is the gradual development of love of Godhead for the devotee interested in Kṛṣṇa consciousness.’

Text 16: ‘The spiritually powerful message of Godhead can be properly discussed only in a society of devotees, and it is greatly pleasing to hear in that association. If one hears from devotees, the way of transcendental experience quickly opens, and gradually one attains firm faith that in due course develops into attraction and devotion.’

Text 17: “If one actually has the seed of transcendental emotion in his heart, the symptoms will be visible in his activities. That is the verdict of all revealed scriptures.

Texts 18-19: ‘When the seed of ecstatic emotion for Kṛṣṇa fructifies, the following nine symptoms manifest in one’s behavior: forgiveness, concern that time should not be wasted, detachment, absence of false prestige, hope, eagerness, a taste for chanting the holy name of the Lord, attachment to descriptions of the transcendental qualities of the Lord, and affection for those places where the Lord resides — that is, a temple or a holy place like Vṛndāvana. These are all called anubhāva, subordinate signs of ecstatic emotion. They are visible in a person in whose heart the seed of love of God has begun to fructify.’

Text 20: “If love for Kṛṣṇa in a seedling state has fructified in one’s heart, one is not agitated by material things.

Text 21: ‘O brāhmaṇas, just accept me as a completely surrendered soul, and let mother Ganges, the representative of the Lord, also accept me in that way, for I have already taken the lotus feet of the Lord into my heart. Let the snakebird — or whatever magical thing the brāhmaṇa created — bite me at once. I only desire that you all continue singing the deeds of Lord Viṣṇu.’

Text 22: “Not a moment should be lost. Every moment should be utilized for Kṛṣṇa or connected with Him.

Text 23: ‘With their words, they offer prayers to the Lord. With their minds, they always remember the Lord. With their bodies, they offer obeisances to the Lord. Despite all these activities, they are still not satisfied. This is the nature of pure devotees. Shedding tears from their eyes, they dedicate their whole lives to the Lord’s service.’

Text 24: “In the material field, people are interested in material enjoyment, mystic power and sense gratification. But these things do not appeal to the devotee at all.

Text 25: ‘King Bharata was very eager to attain the association of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Kṛṣṇa, who is called Uttamaḥśloka because poems and prayers are offered to Him for His favor. In his youth, King Bharata gave up his attractive wife and children, as well as his beloved friends and opulent kingdom, just as one gives up stool after passing it.’

Text 26: “Although a pure devotee’s standard is above all, he still considers himself to be in the lowest stage of life.

Text 27: ‘King Bhagīratha always carried affection for Kṛṣṇa within his heart. Although King Bhagīratha was the crown jewel of kings, he was still wandering about and begging alms in the city of his enemies. He was even offering respects to caṇḍālas, low-class men who eat dogs.’

Text 28: “A fully surrendered devotee always hopes that Lord Kṛṣṇa will be kind to him. This hope is very firm in him.

Text 29: ‘O my Lord, I do not have any love for You, nor am I qualified for discharging devotional service by chanting and hearing. Nor do I possess the mystic power of a Vaiṣṇava, knowledge or pious activities. Nor do I belong to a very high-caste family. On the whole, I do not possess anything. Still, O beloved of the gopīs, because You bestow Your mercy on the most fallen, I have an unbreakable hope that is constantly in my heart. That hope is always giving me pain.’

Text 30: “This eagerness is chiefly characterized by an ardent desire to associate with the Lord.

Text 31: ‘O Kṛṣṇa, O flute-player, the sweetness of Your early age is wonderful within these three worlds. You know My unsteadiness, and I know Yours. No one else knows about this. I want to see Your beautiful, attractive face somewhere in a solitary place, but how can this be accomplished?’

Text 32: “Due to having great relish for the holy name, one is inclined to chant the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra constantly.

Text 33: ‘O Govinda, this youthful girl named Rādhikā is today constantly pouring forth tears like nectar falling from flowers as She sings Your holy names in a sweet voice.’

Text 34: “At this stage of bhāva, a devotee has awakened the tendency to chant and describe the transcendental qualities of the Lord. He has attachment for this process.

Text 35: ‘O my Lord, the transcendental body of Kṛṣṇa is very sweet, and His face is even sweeter than His body. But His soft smile, which has the fragrance of honey, is sweeter still.’

Text 36: “A devotee absorbed in ecstatic emotion for Kṛṣṇa always resides in a place where Kṛṣṇa’s pastimes were performed.

Text 37: ‘O Lord Puṇḍarīkākṣa, while chanting Your holy name with tears in my eyes, when shall I dance in ecstasy on the bank of the Yamunā?’

Text 38: “These are the symptoms of a person who has developed attraction [bhāva] for Kṛṣṇa. Now let Me describe the symptoms of a person who is actually elevated to love of Kṛṣṇa. O Sanātana, please hear this from Me.

Text 39: “Even the most learned man cannot understand the words, activities and symptoms of a person situated in love of Godhead.

Text 40: ‘Even a most learned scholar cannot understand the activities and symptoms of an exalted personality in whose heart love of Godhead has awakened.’

Text 41: ‘When a person is actually advanced and takes pleasure in chanting the holy name of the Lord, who is very dear to him, he is agitated and loudly chants the holy name. He also laughs, cries, becomes agitated and chants just like a madman, not caring for outsiders.’

Text 42: “Love of Godhead increases and is manifested as affection, counterlove, love, attachment, subattachment, ecstasy and sublime ecstasy.

Text 43: “This development is compared to sugarcane seeds, sugarcane plants, sugarcane juice, molasses, crude sugar, refined sugar, sugar candy and rock candy.

Text 44: “One should understand that just as the taste of sugar increases as it is gradually purified, so when love of Godhead increases from rati, which is compared to the beginning seed, its taste increases.

Text 45: “According to the candidate possessing these transcendental qualities [sneha, māna and so on], there are five transcendental mellows — neutrality, servitorship, friendship, parental love and conjugal love.

Text 46: “These five transcendental mellows exist permanently. The devotee may be attracted to one of these mellows, and thus he becomes happy. Kṛṣṇa also becomes inclined toward such a devotee and comes under his control.

Text 47: “When the permanent ecstasies [neutrality, servitorship and so on] are mixed with other ingredients, devotional service in love of Godhead is transformed and becomes composed of transcendental mellows.

Text 48: “Permanent ecstasy becomes a more and more relishable transcendental mellow through the mixture of special ecstasy, subordinate ecstasy, natural ecstasy and transitory ecstasy.

Text 49: “Yogurt mixed with sugar candy, black pepper and camphor is very palatable and tasty. Similarly, when permanent ecstasy mixes with other ecstatic symptoms, it becomes unprecedentedly tasty.

Text 50: “There are two kinds of particular ecstasies [vibhāva]. One is called the support, and the other is called the awakening. The vibration of Kṛṣṇa’s flute is an example of the awakening, and Lord Kṛṣṇa Himself is an example of the support.

Text 51: “The subordinate ecstasies are smiling, dancing and singing, as well as different manifestations in the body. The natural ecstasies, such as being stunned, are considered among the subordinate ecstasies [anubhāva].

Text 52: “There are other ingredients, beginning with complete despondency and jubilation. Altogether there are thirty-three varieties, and when these combine, the mellow becomes very wonderful.

Text 53: “There are five transcendental mellows — neutrality, servitorship, friendship, parental affection and conjugal love, which is also known as the mellow of sweetness. Conjugal love excels all the others.

Text 54: “The position of neutrality increases up to the point where one can appreciate love of Godhead. The mellow of servitorship gradually increases to the point of spontaneous love of Godhead.

Text 55: “After the mellow of servitorship, there are the mellows of friendship and parental love, which increase to subordinate spontaneous love. The greatness of the love found in friends like Subala extends to the standard of ecstatic love of Godhead.

Text 56: “There are two divisions of each of the five mellows — yoga [connection] and viyoga [separation]. Among the mellows of friendship and parental affection, there are many divisions of connection and separation.

Text 57: “Only in the conjugal mellow are there two ecstatic symptoms called rūḍha [advanced] and adhirūḍha [highly advanced]. The advanced ecstasies are found among the queens of Dvārakā, and the highly advanced ecstasies are found among the gopīs.

Text 58: “Highly advanced ecstasy is divided into two categories — mādana and mohana. Meeting together is called mādana, and separation is called mohana.

Text 59: “On the mādana platform there are kissing and many other symptoms, which are unlimited. In the mohana stage, there are two divisions — udghūrṇā [unsteadiness] and citra-jalpa [varieties of mad emotional talks].

Text 60: “Mad emotional talks include ten divisions, called prajalpa and other names. An example of this is the ten verses spoken by Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī called ‘The Song to the Bumblebee.’

Text 61: “Udghūrṇā [unsteadiness] and vivaśa-ceṣṭā [boastful activities] are aspects of transcendental madness. In separation from Kṛṣṇa, one experiences the manifestation of Kṛṣṇa, and one thinks oneself to be Kṛṣṇa.

Text 62: “In conjugal love [śṛṅgāra] there are two departments — meeting and separation. On the platform of meeting, there are unlimited varieties that are beyond description.

Text 63: “Vipralambha has four divisions — pūrva-rāga, māna, pravāsa and prema-vaicittya.

Text 64: “Of the four kinds of separation, three [pūrva-rāga, pravāsa and māna] are celebrated in Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī and the gopīs. In Dvārakā, among the queens, feelings of prema-vaicittya are very prominent.

Text 65: ‘My dear friend kurarī, it is now night, and Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa is sleeping. You yourself are not asleep or resting but are lamenting. Should I presume that you, like us, are affected by the smiling, liberal, playful glances of lotus-eyed Kṛṣṇa? If so, your heart is deeply pierced. Is that why you are showing these signs of sleepless lamentation?’

Text 66: “Lord Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who appeared as the son of Nanda Mahārāja, is the supreme hero in all dealings. Similarly, Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is the topmost heroine in all dealings.

Text 67: ‘Kṛṣṇa is the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself, and He is the crown jewel of all heroes. In Kṛṣṇa, all transcendental good qualities are permanently situated.’

Text 68: ‘The transcendental goddess Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is the direct counterpart of Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa. She is the central figure for all the goddesses of fortune. She possesses all the attraction to attract the all-attractive Personality of Godhead. She is the primeval internal potency of the Lord.’

Text 69: “The transcendental qualities of Lord Kṛṣṇa are unlimited. Out of these, sixty-four are considered prominent. The ears of the devotees are satisfied simply by hearing all these qualities one after the other.

Text 70: ‘Kṛṣṇa, the supreme hero, has the most beautiful transcendental body. This body possesses all good features. It is radiant and very pleasing to the eyes. His body is powerful, strong and youthful.

Text 71: ‘Kṛṣṇa is the linguist of all wonderful languages. He is a truthful and very pleasing speaker. He is expert in speaking, and He is a very wise, learned scholar and a genius.

Text 72: ‘Kṛṣṇa is very expert in artistic enjoyment. He is highly cunning, expert, grateful and firmly determined in His vows. He knows how to deal according to time, person and country, and He sees through the scriptures and authoritative books. He is very clean and self-controlled.

Text 73: ‘Lord Kṛṣṇa is steady, His senses are controlled, and He is forgiving, grave and calm. He is also equal to all. Moreover, He is magnanimous, religious, chivalrous and kind. He is always respectful to respectable people.

Text 74: ‘Kṛṣṇa is very simple and liberal, He is humble and bashful, and He is the protector of the surrendered souls. He is very happy, and He is always the well-wisher of His devotees. He is all-auspicious, and He is submissive to love.

Text 75: ‘Kṛṣṇa is very influential and famous, and He is the object of attachment for everyone. He is the shelter of the good and the virtuous. He is attractive to the minds of women, and He is worshiped by everyone. He is very, very rich.

Text 76: ‘Kṛṣṇa is the Supreme, and He is always glorified as the Supreme Lord and controller. Thus all the previously mentioned transcendental qualities are in Him. The fifty qualities of the Supreme Personality of Godhead mentioned above are as deep as an ocean. In other words, they are difficult to fully comprehend.

Text 77: ‘These qualities are sometimes very minutely exhibited in living beings, but they are fully manifested in the Supreme Personality of Godhead.’

Text 78: ‘Apart from these fifty qualities, there are five other qualities found in the Supreme Personality of Godhead that are partially present in demigods like Śiva.

Texts 79-81: ‘These qualities are (1) the Lord is always situated in His original position, (2) He is omniscient, (3) He is always fresh and youthful, (4) He is the concentrated form of eternity, knowledge and bliss, and (5) He is the possessor of all mystic perfection. There are another five qualities, which exist in the Vaikuṇṭha planets in Nārāyaṇa, the Lord of Lakṣmī. These qualities are also present in Kṛṣṇa, but they are not present in demigods like Lord Śiva or in other living entities. These are (1) the Lord possesses inconceivable supreme power, (2) He generates innumerable universes from His body, (3) He is the original source of all incarnations, (4) He bestows salvation upon enemies He kills, and (5) He has the ability to attract exalted persons who are satisfied in themselves. Although these qualities are present in Nārāyaṇa, the dominating Deity of the Vaikuṇṭha planets, they are even more wonderfully present in Kṛṣṇa.

Texts 82-83: ‘Apart from these sixty transcendental qualities, Kṛṣṇa has an additional four transcendental qualities, which are not manifested even in the personality of Nārāyaṇa. These are: (1) Kṛṣṇa is like an ocean filled with waves of pastimes that evoke wonder within everyone in the three worlds. (2) In His activities of conjugal love, He is always surrounded by His dear devotees who possess unequaled love for Him. (3) He attracts the minds of all three worlds with the melodious vibration of His flute. (4) His personal beauty and opulence are beyond compare. No one is equal to Him, and no one is greater than Him. Thus the Personality of Godhead astonishes all living entities, both moving and nonmoving, within the three worlds. He is so beautiful that He is called Kṛṣṇa.

Texts 84-85: ‘Above Nārāyaṇa, Kṛṣṇa has four specific transcendental qualities — His wonderful pastimes, an abundance of wonderful associates who are very dear to Him [like the gopīs], His wonderful beauty and the wonderful vibration of His flute. Lord Kṛṣṇa is more exalted than ordinary living beings and demigods like Lord Śiva. He is even more exalted than His personal expansion Nārāyaṇa. In all, the Supreme Personality of Godhead has sixty-four transcendental qualities in full.’

Text 86: “Similarly, Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī has unlimited transcendental qualities, of which twenty-five are principal. Śrī Kṛṣṇa is controlled by these transcendental qualities of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī.

Texts 87-91: ‘Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī’s twenty-five chief transcendental qualities are: (1) She is very sweet. (2) She is always freshly youthful. (3) Her eyes are restless. (4) She smiles brightly. (5) She has beautiful, auspicious lines. (6) She makes Kṛṣṇa happy with Her bodily aroma. (7) She is very expert in singing. (8) Her speech is charming. (9) She is very expert in joking and speaking pleasantly. (10) She is very humble and meek. (11) She is always full of mercy. (12) She is cunning. (13) She is expert in executing Her duties. (14) She is shy. (15) She is always respectful. (16) She is always calm. (17) She is always grave. (18) She is expert in enjoying life. (19) She is situated at the topmost level of ecstatic love. (20) She is the reservoir of loving affairs in Gokula. (21) She is the most famous of submissive devotees. (22) She is very affectionate to elderly people. (23) She is very submissive to the love of Her friends. (24) She is the chief gopī. (25) She always keeps Kṛṣṇa under Her control. In short, She possesses unlimited transcendental qualities, just as Lord Kṛṣṇa does.’

Text 92: “The basis of all transcendental mellows is the hero and the heroine, and Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī and Lord Kṛṣṇa, the son of Mahārāja Nanda, are the best.

Text 93: “Just as Lord Kṛṣṇa and Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī are the object and shelter of the mellow of conjugal love, respectively, so in the mellow of servitorship, Kṛṣṇa, the son of Mahārāja Nanda, is the object, and servants like Citraka, Raktaka and Patraka are the shelter. Similarly, in the transcendental mellow of friendship, Lord Kṛṣṇa is the object, and friends like Śrīdāmā, Sudāmā and Subala are the shelter. In the transcendental mellow of parental affection, Kṛṣṇa is the object, and mother Yaśodā and Mahārāja Nanda are the shelter.

Text 94: “Now hear how the mellows appear and how they are realized by the devotees on different transcendental platforms.

Texts 95-98: ‘For those who are completely washed of all material contamination by pure devotional service, who are always satisfied and brightly enlightened in the heart, who are always attached to understanding the transcendental meaning of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, who are always eager to associate with advanced devotees, whose happiness in the service of the lotus feet of Govinda is their very life, who always discharge the confidential activities of love — for such advanced devotees, who are by nature situated in bliss, the seed of love [rati] is expanded in the heart by previous and current reformatory processes. Thus the mixture of ecstatic ingredients becomes tasty and, being within the perception of the devotee, reaches the highest platform of wonder and deep bliss.’

Text 99: “The exchange between Kṛṣṇa and different devotees situated in different transcendental mellows is not to be experienced by nondevotees. Advanced devotees can understand and appreciate the different varieties of devotional service reciprocated with the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

Text 100: ‘Nondevotees cannot understand the exchange of transcendental mellows between the devotees and the Lord. In all respects, this is very difficult to understand, but one who has dedicated everything to the lotus feet of Kṛṣṇa can taste the transcendental mellows.’

Text 101: “This brief description is an elaboration of the ultimate goal of life. Indeed, this is the fifth and ultimate goal, which is beyond the platform of liberation. It is called kṛṣṇa-prema-dhana, the treasure of love for Kṛṣṇa.

Text 102: “Previously I empowered your brother Rūpa Gosvāmī to understand these mellows. I did this while instructing him at the Daśāśvamedha-ghāṭa in Prayāga.

Text 103: “O Sanātana, you should broadcast the revealed scriptures on devotional service and excavate the lost places of pilgrimage in the district of Mathurā.

Text 104: “Establish devotional service to Lord Kṛṣṇa and Rādhārāṇī in Vṛndāvana. You should also compile bhakti scriptures and preach the bhakti cult from Vṛndāvana.”

Text 105: Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu then told Sanātana Gosvāmī about proper renunciation according to a particular situation, and the Lord forbade dry renunciation and speculative knowledge in all respects.

Texts 106-107: ‘One who is not envious but is a kind friend to all living entities, who does not think himself a proprietor and is free from false ego, who is equal in both happiness and distress, who is always satisfied, forgiving and self-controlled, and who is engaged in devotional service with determination, his mind and intelligence dedicated to Me — such a devotee of Mine is very dear to Me.

Text 108: ‘He by whom no one is put into difficulty or anxiety and who is not disturbed by anyone, who is liberated from jubilation, anger, fear and anxiety, is very dear to Me.

Text 109: ‘A devotee who is not dependent on others but is dependent solely on Me, who is clean inwardly and outwardly, who is expert, indifferent to material things, without cares and free from all pains, and who rejects all pious and impious activities is very dear to Me.

Text 110: “One who is free of all material jubilation, hatred, lamentation and desire, who renounces both materially auspicious and materially inauspicious things, and who is devoted to Me is very dear to Me.

Texts 111-112: ‘One who is equal to friends and enemies, who is equipoised in honor and dishonor, heat and cold, happiness and distress, fame and infamy, who is always free from attachment to material things and always grave and satisfied in all circumstances, who doesn’t care for any residence, and who is always fixed in devotional service — such a person is very dear to Me.

Text 113: ‘Devotees who follow these imperishable religious principles of Kṛṣṇa consciousness with great faith and devotion, fully accepting Me as the supreme goal, are very, very dear to Me.’

Text 114: ‘Are there no torn clothes lying on the common road? Do the trees, which exist for maintaining others, no longer give alms in charity? Do the rivers, being dried up, no longer supply water to the thirsty? Are the caves of the mountains now closed, or, above all, does the unconquerable Supreme Personality of Godhead not protect the fully surrendered souls? Why then should learned persons like devotees go to flatter those who are intoxicated by hard-earned wealth?’ ”

Text 115: Thereafter Sanātana Gosvāmī inquired from Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu about all the conclusive statements concerning devotional service, and the Lord very vividly explained all the confidential meanings of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam.

Text 116: In the revealed scripture Hari-vaṁśa, there is a description of Goloka Vṛndāvana, the planet where Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa eternally resides. This information was given by King Indra when he surrendered to Kṛṣṇa and offered prayers after Kṛṣṇa had raised Govardhana Hill.

Texts 117-118: Illusory stories opposed to the conclusions of Kṛṣṇa consciousness concern the destruction of the Yadu dynasty, Kṛṣṇa’s disappearance, the story that Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma arise from a black hair and a white hair of Kṣīrodakaśāyī Viṣṇu, and the story about the kidnapping of the queens. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu explained to Sanātana Gosvāmī the proper conclusions of these stories.

Text 119: Sanātana Gosvāmī then humbly accepted his position as lower than a piece of straw, and symbolically holding some straw in his mouth, he fell down, clasped the lotus feet of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and submitted the following petition.

Text 120: Sanātana Gosvāmī said, “My dear Lord, I am a very lowborn person. Indeed, I am a servant to lowborn people; therefore I am very, very downtrodden. Nonetheless, You have taught me conclusions unknown even to Lord Brahmā.

Text 121: “The conclusions that You have told me are the ocean of the ambrosia of truth. My mind is unable to approach even a drop of that ocean.

Text 122: “If You want to make a lame man like me dance, kindly bestow Your transcendental blessings by placing Your lotus feet on my head.

Text 123: “Now, will You please tell me, ‘Let whatever I have instructed all be fully manifested unto you.’ By blessing me in this way, You will give me strength to describe all this.”

Text 124: Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu then placed His hand on Sanātana Gosvāmī’s head and blessed him, saying, “Let all these instructions be manifested to you.”

Text 125: Thus I have briefly described a discussion of the ultimate goal of life, love of Godhead. The mercy of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu cannot be described expansively.

Text 126: Whoever hears these instructions given to Sanātana Gosvāmī by the Lord comes very soon to realize love of God, Kṛṣṇa.

Text 127: Praying at the lotus feet of Śrī Rūpa and Śrī Raghunātha, always desiring their mercy, I, Kṛṣṇadāsa, narrate Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta, following in their footsteps.

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