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The Liberation of Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya

A summary of the sixth chapter is given by Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura in his Amṛta-pravāha-bhāṣya as follows. When Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu entered the temple of Jagannātha, He immediately fainted. Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya then took Him to his home. Meanwhile, Gopīnātha Ācārya, the brother-in-law of Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya, met Mukunda Datta and talked to him about Caitanya Mahāprabhu’s acceptance of sannyāsa and His journey to Jagannātha Purī. After hearing about Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu’s fainting and His being carried to the house of Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya, people crowded there to see the Lord. Śrīla Nityānanda Prabhu and other devotees then visited the Jagannātha temple, and when they came back to the house of Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu returned to external consciousness. Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya received everyone and distributed mahā-prasādam with great care. The Bhaṭṭācārya then became acquainted with Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and arranged accommodations at his aunt’s house. His brother-in-law, Gopīnātha Ācārya, established that Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu was Kṛṣṇa Himself, but Sārvabhauma and his many disciples could not accept this. However, Gopīnātha Ācārya convinced Sārvabhauma that no one can understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead without being favored by Him. He proved by śāstric quotation, quotations from the revealed scriptures, that Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu was Kṛṣṇa Himself in person. Still, Sārvabhauma did not take these statements very seriously. Hearing all these arguments, Caitanya Mahāprabhu told His devotees that Sārvabhauma was His spiritual master and that whatever he said out of affection was for everyone’s benefit.

When Sārvabhauma met Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, he asked Him to hear Vedānta philosophy from him. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu accepted this proposal, and for seven days He continally heard Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya explain the Vedānta-sūtra. However, the Lord remained very silent. Because of His silence, the Bhaṭṭācārya asked Him whether He was understanding the Vedānta philosophy, and the Lord replied, “Sir, I can understand Vedānta philosophy very clearly, but I cannot understand your explanations.” There was then a discussion between the Bhaṭṭācārya and Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu concerning the authority of the Vedic scriptures, specifically the Upaniṣads and Vedānta-sūtra. The Bhaṭṭācārya was an impersonalist, but Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu proved that the Absolute Truth is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. He proved that the conceptions of the Māyāvādī philosophers concerning the impersonal Absolute Truth are incorrect.

The Absolute Truth is neither impersonal nor without power. The greatest mistake made by the Māyāvādī philosophers is in conceiving the Absolute Truth to be impersonal and without energy. In all the Vedas, the unlimited energies of the Absolute Truth have been accepted. It is also accepted that the Absolute Truth has His transcendental, blissful, eternal form. According to the Vedas, the Lord and the living entity are equal in quality but different quantitatively. The real philosophy of the Absolute Truth states that the Lord and His creation are inconceivably and simultaneously one and different. The conclusion is that the Māyāvādī philosophers are actually atheists. There was much discussion on this issue between Sārvabhauma and Caitanya Mahāprabhu, but despite all his endeavors, the Bhaṭṭācārya was defeated in the end.

At the request of Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu then explained the ātmārāma verse of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam in eighteen different ways. When the Bhaṭṭācārya came to his senses, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu disclosed His real identity. The Bhaṭṭācārya then recited one hundred verses in praise of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu and offered his obeisances. After this, Gopīnātha Ācārya and all the others, having seen the wonderful potencies of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu, became very joyful.

One morning after this incident, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu received some prasādam from Jagannātha and offered it to Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya. Without caring for formality, the Bhaṭṭācārya immediately partook of the mahā-prasādam. On another day, when the Bhaṭṭācārya asked Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu the best way to worship and meditate, the Lord advised him to chant the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra. On another day, the Bhaṭṭācārya wanted to change the reading of the tat te ’nukampām verse because he did not like the word mukti-pada. He wanted to substitute the word bhakti-pada. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu advised Sārvabhauma not to change the reading of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, because mukti-pada indicated the lotus feet of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord Kṛṣṇa. Having become a pure devotee, the Bhaṭṭācārya said, “Because the meaning is hazy, I still prefer bhakti-pada.” At this, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and the other inhabitants of Jagannātha Purī became very pleased. Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya thus became a pure Vaiṣṇava, and the other learned scholars there followed him.

Text 1: I offer my respectful obeisances unto Lord Gauracandra, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who converted the hardhearted Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya, the reservoir of all bad logic, into a great devotee.

Text 2: All glories to Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu! All glories to Lord Nityānanda Prabhu! All glories to Advaita Ācārya! And all glories to all the devotees of Lord Caitanya!

Text 3: In ecstasy, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu went from Āṭhāranālā to the temple of Jagannātha. After seeing Lord Jagannātha, He became very restless due to love of Godhead.

Text 4: Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu went swiftly to embrace Lord Jagannātha, but when He entered the temple, He was so overwhelmed with love of Godhead that He fainted to the floor.

Text 5: When Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu fell down, Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya happened to see Him. When the watchman threatened to beat the Lord, Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya immediately forbade him.

Text 6: Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya was very surprised to see the personal beauty of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu, as well as the transcendental transformations wrought on His body due to love of Godhead.

Text 7: Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu remained unconscious for a long time. Meanwhile, the time for offering prasādam to Lord Jagannātha came, and the Bhaṭṭācārya tried to think of a remedy.

Text 8: While Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu was unconscious, Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya, with the help of the watchman and some disciples, carried Him to his home and laid Him down in a very sanctified room.

Text 9: Examining the body of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, Sārvabhauma saw that His abdomen was not moving and that He was not breathing. Seeing His condition, the Bhaṭṭācārya became very anxious.

Text 10: The Bhaṭṭācārya then took a fine cotton swab and put it before the Lord’s nostrils. When he saw the cotton move very slightly, he became hopeful.

Text 11: Sitting beside Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, he thought, “This is a transcendental ecstatic transformation brought about by love of Kṛṣṇa.”

Text 12: Upon seeing the sign of sūddīpta-sāttvika, Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya could immediately understand the transcendental ecstatic transformation in the body of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu. Such a sign takes place only in the bodies of eternally liberated devotees.

Text 13: Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya considered, “The uncommon ecstatic symptoms of adhirūḍha-bhāva are appearing in the body of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. This is very wonderful! How are they possible in the body of a human being?”

Text 14: While the Bhaṭṭācārya was thinking in this way at his home, all the devotees of Caitanya Mahāprabhu, headed by Nityānanda Prabhu, approached the Siṁha-dvāra [the entrance door of the temple].

Text 15: There the devotees heard the people talking about a mendicant who had come to Jagannātha Purī and seen the Deity of Jagannātha.

Text 16: The people said that the sannyāsī had fallen unconscious upon seeing the Deity of Lord Jagannātha. Because His consciousness did not return, Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya had taken Him to his home.

Text 17: Hearing this, the devotees could understand that they were speaking of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu. Just then, Śrī Gopīnātha Ācārya arrived.

Text 18: Gopīnātha Ācārya was a resident of Nadia, the son-in-law of Viśārada and a devotee of Caitanya Mahāprabhu. He knew the true identity of His Lordship.

Text 19: Gopīnātha Ācārya had previously been acquainted with Mukunda Datta, and when the Ācārya saw him at Jagannātha Purī, he was very much astonished.

Text 20: Mukunda Datta offered obeisances unto Gopīnātha Ācārya upon meeting him. Then the Ācārya embraced Mukunda Datta and inquired about news of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

Text 21: Mukunda Datta replied, “The Lord has already arrived here. We have come with Him.”

Text 22: As soon as Gopīnātha Ācārya saw Nityānanda Prabhu, he offered his obeisances unto Him. In this way, meeting all the devotees, he asked about news of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu again and again.

Text 23: Mukunda Datta continued, “After accepting the sannyāsa order, Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu has come to Jagannātha Purī and has brought all of us with Him.

Text 24: “Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu left our company and walked ahead to see Lord Jagannātha. We have just arrived and are now looking for Him.

Text 25: “From the talk of the people in general, we have guessed that the Lord is now at the house of Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya.

Text 26: “Upon seeing Lord Jagannātha, Caitanya Mahāprabhu became ecstatic and fell unconscious, and Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya has taken Him to his home in this condition.

Text 27: “Just as I was thinking of meeting you, by chance we have actually met.

Text 28: “First let us all go to the house of Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya and see Caitanya Mahāprabhu. Later we shall come to see Lord Jagannātha.”

Text 29: Hearing this and feeling very pleased, Gopīnātha Ācārya immediately took all the devotees with him and approached the house of Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya.

Text 30: Arriving at the home of Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya, everyone saw the Lord lying unconscious. Seeing Him in this condition, Gopīnātha Ācārya became very unhappy, but at the same time he was happy just to see the Lord.

Text 31: Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya permitted all the devotees to enter his house, and upon seeing Nityānanda Prabhu, the Bhaṭṭācārya offered Him obeisances.

Text 32: Sārvabhauma met with all the devotees and offered them a proper welcome. They were all pleased to see Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

Text 33: The Bhaṭṭācārya then sent them all back to see Lord Jagannātha, and he asked his own son, Candaneśvara, to accompany them as a guide.

Text 34: Everyone was then very pleased to see the Deity of Lord Jagannātha. Lord Nityānanda in particular was overwhelmed with ecstasy.

Text 35: When Lord Nityānanda Prabhu nearly fainted, all the devotees caught Him and steadied Him. At that time, the priest of Lord Jagannātha brought a garland that had been offered to the Deity and offered it to Nityānanda Prabhu.

Text 36: Everyone was pleased to receive this garland worn by Lord Jagannātha. Afterwards they all returned to the place where Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu was staying.

Text 37: All of the devotees then began to loudly chant the Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra. Just before noon the Lord regained His consciousness.

Text 38: Caitanya Mahāprabhu got up and very loudly chanted, “Hari! Hari!” Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya was very pleased to see the Lord regain consciousness, and he took the dust of the Lord’s lotus feet.

Text 39: The Bhaṭṭācārya informed all of them, “Please take your midday baths immediately. Today I shall offer you mahā-prasādam, the remnants of food offered to Lord Jagannātha.”

Text 40: After bathing in the sea, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and His devotees returned very soon. The Lord then washed His feet and sat down on a carpet to take lunch.

Text 41: Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya made arrangements to bring various kinds of mahā-prasādam from the Jagannātha temple. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu then accepted lunch with great happiness.

Text 42: Caitanya Mahāprabhu was offered special rice and first-class vegetables on golden plates. He thus took lunch in the company of His devotees.

Text 43: While Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya personally distributed the prasādam, Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu requested him, “Please give Me only boiled vegetables.

Text 44: “You can offer the cakes and preparations made with condensed milk to all the devotees.” Hearing this, the Bhaṭṭācārya folded his hands and spoke as follows.

Text 45: “Today, all of you please try to taste the lunch just as Lord Jagannātha accepted it.”

Text 46: After saying this, he made them all eat the various cakes and condensed-milk preparations. After feeding them, he offered them water to wash their hands, feet and mouths.

Text 47: Begging permission from Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu and His devotees, Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya then went with Gopīnātha Ācārya to take lunch. After finishing their lunch, they returned to Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

Text 48: Offering his obeisances to Caitanya Mahāprabhu, Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya said, “Namo nārāyaṇāya” [“I offer my obeisances to Nārāyaṇa”].

Text 49: Hearing these words, Sārvabhauma understood Lord Caitanya to be a Vaiṣṇava sannyāsī.

Text 50: Sārvabhauma then said to Gopīnātha Ācārya, “I want to know Caitanya Mahāprabhu’s previous situation.”

Text 51: Gopīnātha Ācārya replied, “There was a man named Jagannātha, who was a resident of Navadvīpa, and whose surname was Miśra Purandara.

Text 52: “Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu is the son of that Jagannātha Miśra, and His former name was Viśvambhara Miśra. He also happens to be the grandson of Nīlāmbara Cakravartī.”

Text 53: The Bhaṭṭācārya said, “Nīlāmbara Cakravartī was a classmate of my father, Maheśvara Viśārada. I knew him as such.

Text 54: “Jagannātha Miśra Purandara was respected by my father. Thus because of their relationship with my father, I respect both Jagannātha Miśra and Nīlāmbara Cakravartī.”

Text 55: Hearing that Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu belonged to the Nadia district, Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya became very pleased and addressed the Lord as follows.

Text 56: “You are naturally respectable. Besides, You are a sannyāsī; thus I wish to become Your personal servant.”

Text 57: As soon as Caitanya Mahāprabhu heard this from the Bhaṭṭācārya, He immediately remembered Lord Viṣṇu and began to speak humbly to him as follows.

Text 58: “Because you are a teacher of Vedānta philosophy, you are the master of all the people in the world and their well-wisher as well. You are also the benefactor of all kinds of sannyāsīs.

Text 59: “I am a young sannyāsī, and I actually have no knowledge of what is good and what is bad. Therefore I am taking shelter of you and accepting you as My spiritual master.

Text 60: “I have come here only to associate with you, and I am now taking shelter of you. Will you kindly maintain Me in all respects?

Text 61: “The incident that happened today was a great obstacle for Me, but you have kindly relieved Me of it.”

Text 62: The Bhaṭṭācārya replied, “Do not go alone to see the Deity at the Jagannātha temple. It is better that You go with me or my men.”

Text 63: The Lord said, “I shall never enter the temple but shall always view the Lord from the side of the Garuḍa-stambha.”

Text 64: Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya then told Gopīnātha Ācārya, “Take Gosvāmījī and show Him Lord Jagannātha.

Text 65: “Also, the apartment belonging to my maternal aunt is in a very solitary place. Make all arrangements for Him to stay there.”

Text 66: Thus Gopīnātha Ācārya took Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu to His residential quarters and showed Him where to find water, tubs and waterpots. Indeed, he arranged everything.

Text 67: The next day Gopīnātha Ācārya took Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu to see the early rising of Lord Jagannātha.

Text 68: Gopīnātha Ācārya then took Mukunda Datta with him and went to Sārvabhauma’s house. When they arrived, Sārvabhauma addressed Mukunda Datta as follows.

Text 69: “The sannyāsī is very meek and humble by nature, and His person is very beautiful to see. Consequently my affection for Him increases.

Text 70: “From which sampradāya has He accepted the sannyāsa order, and what is His name?”

Text 71: Gopīnātha Ācārya replied, “The Lord’s name is Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya, and His sannyāsa preceptor is the greatly fortunate Keśava Bhāratī.”

Text 72: Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya said, “‘Śrī Kṛṣṇa’ is a very good name, but He belongs to the Bhāratī community. Therefore He is a second-class sannyāsī.”

Text 73: Gopīnātha Ācārya replied, “Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya Mahāprabhu does not rely on any external formality. There is no need for Him to accept the sannyāsa order from a superior sampradāya.”

Text 74: The Bhaṭṭācārya inquired, “Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu is in His full-fledged youthful life. How can He keep the principles of sannyāsa?

Text 75: “I shall continually recite Vedānta philosophy before Caitanya Mahāprabhu so that He may remain fixed in His renunciation and thus enter upon the path of monism.”

Text 76: Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya then suggested, “If Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu would like, I could bring Him into a first-class sampradāya by offering Him saffron cloth and performing the reformatory process again.”

Text 77: Gopīnātha Ācārya and Mukunda Datta became very unhappy when they heard this. Gopīnātha Ācārya therefore addressed Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya as follows.

Text 78: “My dear Bhaṭṭācārya, you do not know the greatness of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu. All the symptoms of the Supreme Personality of Godhead are found in Him to the highest degree.”

Text 79: Gopīnātha Ācārya continued, “Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu is celebrated as the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Those who are ignorant in this connection find the conclusion of knowledgeable men very difficult to understand.”

Text 80: The disciples of Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya retaliated, “By what evidence do you conclude that Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu is the Supreme Lord?”

Text 81: The disciples of the Bhaṭṭācārya said, “We derive knowledge of the Absolute Truth by logical hypothesis.”

Text 82: Gopīnātha Ācārya continued, “One can understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead only by His mercy, not by guesswork or hypothesis.”

Text 83: The Ācārya continued, “If one receives but a tiny bit of the Lord’s favor by dint of devotional service, he can understand the nature of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

Text 84: ‘My Lord, if one is favored by even a slight trace of the mercy of Your lotus feet, he can understand the greatness of Your personality. But those who speculate in order to understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead are unable to know You, even though they continue to study the Vedas for many years.’ ”

Texts 85-86: Gopīnātha Ācārya then addressed Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya: “You are a great scholar and a teacher of many disciples. Indeed, there is no other scholar like you on earth. Nonetheless, because you are bereft of even a pinch of the Lord’s mercy, you cannot understand Him, even though He is present in your home.

Text 87: “It is not your fault; it is the verdict of the scriptures. You cannot understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead simply by scholarship.”

Text 88: Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya replied, “My dear Gopīnātha Ācārya, please speak with great care. What is the proof that you have received the mercy of the Lord?”

Text 89: Gopīnātha Ācārya replied, “Knowledge of the summum bonum, the Absolute Truth, is evidence of the mercy of the Supreme Lord.”

Text 90: Gopīnātha Ācārya continued, “You have seen the symptoms of the Supreme Personality of Godhead in the body of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu during His absorption in an ecstatic mood.

Text 91: “Despite directly perceiving the symptoms of the Supreme Lord in the body of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, you cannot understand Him. This is commonly called illusion.

Text 92: “A person influenced by the external energy is called bahirmukha jana, a mundane person, because despite his perception, he cannot understand the real substance.” Hearing Gopīnātha Ācārya say this, Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya smiled and began to speak as follows.

Text 93: The Bhaṭṭācārya said, “We are just having a discussion among friends and considering the points described in the scriptures. Do not become angry. I am simply speaking on the strength of the śāstras. Please don’t take any offense.

Text 94: “Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu is certainly a great, uncommon devotee, but we cannot accept Him as an incarnation of Lord Viṣṇu because, according to śāstra, there is no incarnation in this Age of Kali.

Text 95: “Another name for Lord Viṣṇu is Triyuga because there is no incarnation of Lord Viṣṇu in Kali-yuga. Indeed, this is the verdict of the revealed scriptures.”

Text 96: Upon hearing this, Gopīnātha Ācārya became very unhappy. He said to the Bhaṭṭācārya, “You consider yourself the knower of all Vedic scriptures.

Text 97: “Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam and the Mahābhārata are the two most important Vedic scriptures, but you have paid no attention to their statements.

Text 98: “In Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam and the Mahābhārata it is stated that the Lord appears directly, but you say that in this age there is no manifestation or incarnation of Lord Viṣṇu.

Text 99: “In this Age of Kali there is no līlā-avatāra of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; therefore He is known as Triyuga. That is one of His holy names.”

Text 100: Gopīnātha Ācārya continued, “There is certainly an incarnation in every age, and such an incarnation is called the yuga-avatāra. But your heart has become so hardened by logic and argument that you cannot consider all these facts.

Text 101: ‘In the past, your son has had bodies of three different colors, according to the age. These colors were white, red and yellow. In this age [Dvāpara-yuga] He has accepted a blackish body.’

Text 102: ‘In the Age of Kali, as well as in Dvāpara-yuga, the people offer prayers to the Supreme Personality of Godhead by various mantras and observe the regulative principles of the supplementary Vedic literatures. Now please hear of this from me.

Text 103: ‘In this Age of Kali, those who are intelligent perform the congregational chanting of the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra, worshiping the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who appears in this age always describing the glories of Kṛṣṇa. That incarnation is yellowish in hue and is always associated with His plenary expansions [such as Śrī Nityānanda Prabhu] and personal expansions [such as Gadādhara], as well as His devotees and associates [such as Svarūpa Dāmodara].’

Text 104: ‘The Lord [in the incarnation of Gaurasundara] has a golden complexion. Indeed, His entire body, which is very nicely constituted, is like molten gold. Sandalwood pulp is smeared all over His body. He will take the fourth order of spiritual life [sannyāsa] and will be very much self-controlled. He will be distinguished from Māyāvādī sannyāsīs in that He will be fixed in devotional service and will spread the saṅkīrtana movement.’ ”

Text 105: Gopīnātha Ācārya then said, “There is no need to quote so much evidence from the śāstras, for you are a very dry speculator. There is no need to sow seeds in barren land.

Text 106: “When the Lord will be pleased with you, you will also understand these conclusions and will quote from the śāstras.

Text 107: “The false arguments and philosophical word jugglery of your disciples are not faults of theirs. They have simply received the benediction of Māyāvāda philosophy.

Text 108: ‘I offer my respectful obeisances unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is full of unlimited qualities and whose different potencies bring about agreement and disagreement between disputants. Thus the illusory energy again and again covers the self-realization of both disputants.’

Text 109: ‘In almost all cases, whatever learned brāhmaṇas speak becomes accepted; nothing is impossible for one who takes shelter of My illusory energy and speaks under her influence.’ ”

Text 110: After hearing this from Gopīnātha Ācārya, Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya said, “First go to the place where Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu is staying and invite Him here with His associates. Ask Him on my account.

Text 111: “Take jagannātha-prasādam and first give it to Caitanya Mahāprabhu and His associates. After that, come back here and teach me well.”

Text 112: Gopīnātha Ācārya was the brother-in-law of Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya; therefore their relationship was very sweet and intimate. Under the circumstances, Gopīnātha Ācārya taught him by sometimes blaspheming him, sometimes praising him and sometimes laughing at him. This had been going on for some time.

Text 113: Śrīla Mukunda Datta felt very satisfied to hear the conclusive statements of Gopīnātha Ācārya, but he became very unhappy and angry to hear the statements put forward by Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya.

Text 114: According to the instructions of Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya, Gopīnātha Ācārya went to Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and invited Him on the Bhaṭṭācārya’s behalf.

Text 115: The Bhaṭṭācārya’s statements were discussed before Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. Gopīnātha Ācārya and Mukunda Datta disapproved of the Bhaṭṭācārya’s statements because they caused mental pain.

Text 116: Hearing this, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu said, “Do not speak like that. Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya has shown great affection and mercy toward Me.

Text 117: “Out of paternal affection for Me, he wants to protect Me and see that I follow the regulative principles of a sannyāsī. What fault is there in this?”

Text 118: The next morning, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya together visited the temple of Lord Jagannātha. Both of them were in a very pleasant mood.

Text 119: When they entered the temple, Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya offered Caitanya Mahāprabhu a seat, while he himself sat down on the floor out of due respect for a sannyāsī.

Text 120: He then began to instruct Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu on Vedānta philosophy, and out of affection and devotion, he spoke to the Lord as follows.

Text 121: The Bhaṭṭācārya said, “Hearing Vedānta philosophy is a sannyāsī’s main business. Therefore without hesitation You should study Vedānta philosophy, hearing it without cessation from a superior person.”

Text 122: Lord Caitanya replied, “You are very merciful to Me, and therefore I think it is My duty to obey your order.”

Text 123: Thus for seven days continually, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu listened to the Vedānta philosophy expounded by Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya. However, Caitanya Mahāprabhu did not say anything and did not indicate whether it was right or wrong. He simply sat there and listened to the Bhaṭṭācārya.

Text 124: On the eighth day, Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya said to Caitanya Mahāprabhu, “You have been listening to Vedānta philosophy from me continually for seven days.

Text 125: “You have simply been listening, fixed in Your silence. Since You do not say whether You think it is right or wrong, I cannot know whether You are actually understanding Vedānta philosophy or not.”

Text 126: Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu replied, “I am a fool, and consequently I do not study the Vedānta-sūtra. I am just trying to hear it from you because you have ordered Me.

Text 127: “Only for the sake of executing the duties of the renounced order of sannyāsa do I listen. Unfortunately, I cannot in the least understand the meaning you are presenting.”

Text 128: Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya replied, “I accept that You do not understand, yet even one who does not understand inquires about the subject matter.

Text 129: “You are hearing again and again, yet You keep silent. I cannot understand what is actually within Your mind.”

Text 130: Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu then revealed His mind, saying, “I can understand the meaning of each sūtra very clearly, but your explanations have simply agitated My mind.

Text 131: “The meaning of the aphorisms in the Vedānta-sūtra contain clear purports in themselves, but other purports you presented simply covered the meaning of the sūtras like a cloud.

Text 132: “You do not explain the direct meaning of the Brahma-sūtras. Indeed, it appears that your business is to cover their real meaning.”

Text 133: Caitanya Mahāprabhu continued, “The Vedānta-sūtra is the summary of all the Upaniṣads; therefore whatever direct meaning is there in the Upaniṣads is also recorded in the Vedānta-sūtra, or Vyāsa-sūtra.

Text 134: “For each sūtra the direct meaning must be accepted without interpretation. However, you simply abandon the direct meaning and proceed with your imaginative interpretation.

Text 135: “Although there is other evidence, the evidence given in the Vedic version must be taken as foremost. Vedic versions understood directly are first-class evidence.”

Text 136: Caitanya Mahāprabhu continued, “Conchshells and cow dung are nothing but the bones and the stool of some living entities, but according to the Vedic version they are both considered very pure.

Text 137: “The Vedic statements are self-evident. Whatever is stated there must be accepted. If we interpret according to our own imagination, the authority of the Vedas is immediately lost.”

Text 138: Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu continued, “The Brahma-sūtra, compiled by Śrīla Vyāsadeva, is as radiant as the sun. One who tries to interpret its meaning simply covers that sunshine with a cloud.

Text 139: “All the Vedas and literature that strictly follows the Vedic principles explain that the Supreme Brahman is the Absolute Truth, the greatest of all, and a feature of the Supreme Lord.

Text 140: “Actually, the Supreme Absolute Truth is a person, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, full with all opulences. You are trying to explain Him as impersonal and formless.

Text 141: “Wherever there is an impersonal description in the Vedas, the Vedas mean to establish that everything belonging to the Supreme Personality of Godhead is transcendental and free of mundane characteristics.”

Text 142: Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu continued, “‘Whatever Vedic mantras describe the Absolute Truth impersonally only prove in the end that the Absolute Truth is a person. The Supreme Lord is understood in two featuresimpersonal and personal. If one considers the Supreme Personality of Godhead in both features, he can actually understand the Absolute Truth. He knows that the personal understanding is stronger because we see that everything is full of variety. No one can see anything that is not full of variety.’

Text 143: “Everything in the cosmic manifestation emanates from the Absolute Truth, remains in the Absolute Truth, and after annihilation again enters the Absolute Truth.

Text 144: “The personal features of the Supreme Personality of Godhead are categorized in three casesnamely ablative, instrumental and locative.”

Texts 145-146: Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu continued, “When the Supreme Personality of Godhead wished to become many, He glanced over the material energy. Before the creation there were no mundane eyes or mind; therefore the transcendental nature of the Absolute Truth’s mind and eyes is confirmed.

Text 147: “The word ‘Brahman’ indicates the complete Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is Śrī Kṛṣṇa. That is the verdict of all Vedic literature.

Text 148: “The confidential meaning of the Vedas is not easily understood by common men; therefore that meaning is supplemented by the words of the Purāṇas.

Text 149: ‘How greatly fortunate are Nanda Mahārāja, the cowherd men and all the inhabitants of Vrajabhūmi! There is no limit to their fortune, because the Absolute Truth, the source of transcendental bliss, the eternal Supreme Brahman, has become their friend.’

Text 150: “The Vedic ‘apāṇi-pāda’ mantra rejects material hands and legs, yet it states that the Lord goes very fast and accepts everything offered to Him.

Text 151: “All these mantras confirm that the Absolute Truth is personal, but the Māyāvādīs, throwing away the direct meaning, interpret the Absolute Truth as impersonal.

Text 152: “Are you describing as formless that Supreme Personality of Godhead whose transcendental form is complete with six transcendental opulences?

Text 153: “The Supreme Personality of Godhead has three primary potencies. Are you trying to prove that He has no potencies?

Text 154: ‘The internal potency of the Supreme Lord, Viṣṇu, is spiritual, as verified by the śāstras. There is another spiritual potency, known as kṣetra-jña, or the living entity. The third potency, which is known as nescience, makes the living entity godless and fills him with fruitive activity.

Text 155: ‘O King, the kṣetra-jña-śakti is the living entity. Although he has the facility to live in either the material or spiritual world, he suffers the threefold miseries of material existence because he is influenced by the avidyā [nescience] potency, which covers his constitutional position.

Text 156: ‘This living entity, covered by the influence of nescience, exists in different forms in the material condition. O King, he is thus proportionately freed from the influence of material energy, to a greater or lesser degree.’

Text 157: ‘The Supreme Personality of Godhead is sac-cid-ānanda-vigraha. This means that He originally has three potenciesthe pleasure potency, the potency of eternality and the potency of knowledge. Together these are called the cit potency, and they are present in full in the Supreme Lord. For the living entities, who are part and parcel of the Lord, the pleasure potency in the material world is sometimes displeasing and sometimes mixed. This is not the case with the Supreme Personality of Godhead, because He is not under the influence of the material energy or its modes.’

Text 158: “The Supreme Personality of Godhead in His original form is full of eternity, knowledge and bliss. The spiritual potency in these three portions [sat, cit and ānanda] assumes three different forms.

Text 159: “The three portions of the spiritual potency are called hlādinī [the bliss portion], sandhinī [the eternity portion] and samvit [the knowledge portion]. We accept knowledge of these as full knowledge of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

Text 160: “The spiritual potency of the Supreme Personality of Godhead also appears in three phasesinternal, marginal and external. These are all engaged in His devotional service in love.

Text 161: “In His spiritual potency, the Supreme Lord enjoys six kinds of opulences. You do not accept this spiritual potency, and this is due to your great impudence.

Text 162: “The Lord is the master of the potencies, and the living entity is the servant of them. That is the difference between the Lord and the living entity. However, you declare that the Lord and the living entities are one and the same.

Text 163: “In the Bhagavad-gītā the living entity is established as the marginal potency of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Yet you say that the living entity is completely different from the Lord.

Text 164: ‘Earth, water, fire, air, ether, mind, intelligence and false ego are My eightfold separated energies.

Text 165: ‘Besides these inferior energies, which are material, there is another energy, a spiritual energy, and this is the living being, O mighty-armed one. The entire material world is sustained by the living entities.’

Text 166: “The transcendental form of the Supreme Personality of Godhead is complete in eternity, cognizance and bliss. However, you describe this transcendental form as a product of material goodness.

Text 167: “One who does not accept the transcendental form of the Lord is certainly an agnostic. Such a person should be neither seen nor touched. Indeed, he is subject to be punished by Yamarāja.

Text 168: “The Buddhists do not recognize the authority of the Vedas; therefore they are considered agnostics. However, those who have taken shelter of the Vedic scriptures yet preach agnosticism in accordance with the Māyāvāda philosophy are certainly more dangerous than the Buddhists.

Text 169: “Śrīla Vyāsadeva presented the Vedānta philosophy for the deliverance of conditioned souls, but if one hears the commentary of Śaṅkarācārya, everything is spoiled.

Text 170: “The Vedānta-sūtra aims at establishing that the cosmic manifestation has come into being by the transformation of the inconceivable potency of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

Text 171: “The touchstone, after touching iron, produces volumes of gold without being changed. Similarly, the Supreme Personality of Godhead manifests Himself as the cosmic manifestation by His inconceivable potency, yet He remains unchanged in His eternal, transcendental form.

Text 172: “Śaṅkarācārya states that the theory of transformation presented in the Vedānta-sūtra implies that the Absolute Truth itself is transformed. In this way the Māyāvādī philosophers denigrate Śrīla Vyāsadeva by accusing him of error. They thus find fault in the Vedānta-sūtra and misinterpret it to try to establish the theory of illusion.

Text 173: “The theory of illusion can be applied only when the living entity identifies himself with the body. As far as the cosmic manifestation is concerned, it cannot be called false, although it is certainly temporary.

Text 174: “The transcendental vibration oṁkāra is the sound form of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. All Vedic knowledge and this cosmic manifestation are produced from this sound representation of the Supreme Lord.

Text 175: “The subsidiary vibration tat tvam asi [“you are the same”] is meant for the understanding of the living entity, but the principal vibration is oṁkāra. Not caring for oṁkāra, Śaṅkarācārya has stressed the vibration tat tvam asi.”

Text 176: Thus Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu criticized Śaṅkarācārya’s Śārīraka-bhāṣya as imaginary, and He pointed out hundreds of faults in it. To defend Śaṅkarācārya, however, Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya presented unlimited opposition.

Text 177: The Bhaṭṭācārya presented various types of false arguments with pseudo logic and tried to defeat his opponent in many ways. However, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu refuted all these arguments and established His own conviction.

Text 178: Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu continued, “The Supreme Personality of Godhead is the central point of all relationships, acting in devotional service to Him is one’s real occupation, and the attainment of love of Godhead is the ultimate goal of life. These three subject matters are described in the Vedic literature.

Text 179: “If one tries to explain the Vedic literature in a different way, he is indulging in imagination. Any interpretation of the self-evident Vedic version is simply imaginary.

Text 180: “Actually there is no fault on the part of Śaṅkarācārya. He simply carried out the order of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. He had to imagine some kind of interpretation, and therefore he presented a kind of Vedic literature that is full of atheism.

Text 181: “[Addressing Lord Śiva, the Supreme Personality of Godhead said:] ‘Please make the general populace averse to Me by imagining your own interpretation of the Vedas. Also, cover Me in such a way that people will take more interest in advancing material civilization just to propagate a population bereft of spiritual knowledge.’

Text 182: “[Lord Śiva informed goddess Durgā, the superintendent of the material world:] ‘In the Age of Kali I take the form of a brāhmaṇa and explain the Vedas through false scriptures in an atheistic way, similar to Buddhist philosophy.’ ”

Text 183: Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya became very much astonished upon hearing this. He became stunned and said nothing.

Text 184: Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu then told him, “Do not be astonished. Actually, devotional service unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead is the highest perfection of human activity.

Text 185: “Even the self-satisfied sages perform devotional service to the Supreme Lord. Such are the transcendental qualities of the Lord. They are full of inconceivable spiritual potency.

Text 186: ‘Those who are self-satisfied and unattracted by external material desires are also attracted to the loving service of Śrī Kṛṣṇa, whose qualities are transcendental and whose activities are wonderful. Hari, the Personality of Godhead, is called Kṛṣṇa because He has such transcendentally attractive features.’ ”

Text 187: After hearing the ātmārāma verse, Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya addressed Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, “My dear Sir, please explain this verse. I have a great desire to hear Your explanation of it.”

Text 188: The Lord replied, “First let Me hear your explanation. After that, I shall try to explain what little I know.”

Text 189: Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya then began to explain the ātmārāma verse, and according to the principles of logic, he put forward various propositions.

Text 190: The Bhaṭṭācārya explained the ātmārāma verse in nine different ways on the basis of scripture. After hearing his explanation, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, smiling a little, began to speak.

Text 191: Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu said, “My dear Bhaṭṭācārya, you are exactly like Bṛhaspati, the priest of the heavenly kingdom. Indeed, no one within this world has the power to explain the scriptures in such a way.

Text 192: “My dear Bhaṭṭācārya, you have certainly explained this verse by the prowess of your vast learning, but you should know that, besides this scholarly explanation, there is another purport to this verse.”

Text 193: Upon the request of Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya, Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu began to explain the verse, without touching upon the nine explanations given by the Bhaṭṭācārya.

Text 194: There are eleven words in the ātmārāma verse, and Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu explained each word, one after the other.

Text 195: Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu took each word specifically and combined it with the word “ātmārāma.” He thus explained the word “ātmārāma” in eighteen different ways.

Text 196: Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu said, “The Supreme Personality of Godhead, His different potencies and His transcendental qualities all have inconceivable prowess. It is not possible to explain them fully.

Text 197: “These three items attract the mind of a perfect student engaged in spiritual activities and overcome all other processes of spiritual activity.”

Text 198: Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu explained the meaning of the verse by giving evidence concerning Śukadeva Gosvāmī and the four ṛṣis Sanaka, Sanat-kumāra, Sanātana and Sanandana. Thus the Lord gave various meanings and explanations.

Text 199: Upon hearing Caitanya Mahāprabhu’s explanation of the ātmārāma verse, Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya was struck with wonder. He then understood Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu to be Kṛṣṇa in person, and he thus condemned himself in the following words.

Text 200: “Caitanya Mahāprabhu is certainly Lord Kṛṣṇa Himself. Because I could not understand Him and was very proud of my own learning, I have committed many offenses.”

Text 201: When Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya denounced himself as an offender and took shelter of the Lord, the Lord desired to show him mercy.

Text 202: To show him mercy, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu allowed him to see His Viṣṇu form. Thus He immediately assumed four hands.

Text 203: Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu first showed him the four-handed form and then appeared before him in His original form of Kṛṣṇa, with a blackish complexion and a flute to His lips.

Text 204: When Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya saw the form of Lord Kṛṣṇa manifested in Caitanya Mahāprabhu, he immediately fell down flat to offer Him obeisances. Then he stood up and with folded hands began to offer prayers.

Text 205: By the mercy of the Lord, all truths were revealed to Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya, and he could understand the importance of chanting the holy name and distributing love of Godhead everywhere.

Text 206: Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya composed one hundred verses in a very short time. Indeed, not even Bṛhaspati, the priest of the heavenly planets, could compose verses as quickly.

Text 207: After hearing the one hundred verses, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu happily embraced Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya, who was immediately overwhelmed in ecstatic love of Godhead and fell unconscious.

Text 208: Out of ecstatic love of God, the Bhaṭṭācārya shed tears, and his body was stunned. He exhibited an ecstatic mood, and he perspired, shook and trembled. He sometimes danced, sometimes chanted, sometimes cried and sometimes fell down to touch the lotus feet of the Lord.

Text 209: While Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya was in this ecstasy, Gopīnātha Ācārya was very pleased. The associates of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu all laughed to see the Bhaṭṭācārya dance so.

Text 210: Gopīnātha Ācārya told Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu, “Sir, You have brought all this upon Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya.”

Text 211: Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu replied, “You are a devotee. Because of your association, Lord Jagannātha has shown him mercy.”

Text 212: After this, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu pacified the Bhaṭṭācārya, and when he was quieted, he offered many prayers to the Lord.

Text 213: Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya said, “My dear Sir, You have delivered the entire world, but that is not a very great task. However, You have also delivered me, and that is certainly the work of very wonderful powers.

Text 214: “I had become dull-headed due to reading too many books on logic. Consequently I had become like an iron bar. Nonetheless, You have melted me, and therefore Your influence is very great.”

Text 215: After hearing the prayers offered by Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu returned to His residence, and the Bhaṭṭācārya, through Gopīnātha Ācārya, induced the Lord to accept lunch there.

Text 216: Early the following morning, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu went to see Lord Jagannātha in the temple, and He saw the Lord rise from His bed.

Text 217: The priest there presented Him with garlands and prasādam that had been offered to Lord Jagannātha. This pleased Caitanya Mahāprabhu very much.

Text 218: Carefully tying the prasādam and garlands in a cloth, Caitanya Mahāprabhu hastened to the house of Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya.

Text 219: He arrived at the Bhaṭṭācārya’s house a little before sunrise, just when the Bhaṭṭācārya was arising from bed.

Text 220: As Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya arose from bed, he distinctly chanted, “Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa.” Lord Caitanya was very pleased to hear him chant the holy name of Kṛṣṇa.

Text 221: The Bhaṭṭācārya noticed Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu outside, and with great haste he went to Him and offered prayers unto His lotus feet.

Text 222: The Bhaṭṭācārya offered a carpet for the Lord to sit upon, and both of them sat there. Then Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu opened the prasādam and placed it in the hands of the Bhaṭṭācārya.

Text 223: At that time the Bhaṭṭācārya had not even washed his mouth, nor had he taken his bath or finished his morning duties. Nonetheless, he was very pleased to receive the prasādam of Lord Jagannātha.

Text 224: By the mercy of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, all the dullness in the mind of Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya was eradicated. After reciting the following two verses, he ate the prasādam offered to him.

Text 225: The Bhaṭṭācārya said, “‘One should eat the mahā-prasādam of the Lord immediately upon receiving it, even though it is dried up, stale or brought from a distant country. One should consider neither time nor place.

Text 226: ‘The prasādam of Lord Kṛṣṇa is to be eaten by gentlemen as soon as it is received; there should be no hesitation. There are no regulative principles concerning time and place. This is the order of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.’ ”

Text 227: Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu was very pleased to see this. He became ecstatic in love of Godhead and embraced Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya.

Text 228: The Lord and the servant embraced each other and began to dance. Simply by touching each other, they became ecstatic.

Text 229: As they danced and embraced, spiritual symptoms manifested in their bodies. They perspired, trembled and shed tears, and the Lord began to speak in His ecstasy.

Text 230: Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu said, “Today I have conquered the three worlds very easily. Today I have ascended to the spiritual world.”

Text 231: Caitanya Mahāprabhu continued, “I think that today all My desires have been fulfilled because I see that Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya has acquired faith in the mahā-prasādam of Lord Jagannātha.

Text 232: “Indeed, today you have undoubtedly taken shelter of the lotus feet of Kṛṣṇa, and Kṛṣṇa, without reservation, has become very merciful toward you.

Text 233: “My dear Bhaṭṭācārya, today you have been released from material bondage in the bodily conception of life; you have cut to pieces the shackles of the illusory energy.

Text 234: “Today your mind has become fit to take shelter of the lotus feet of Kṛṣṇa because, surpassing the Vedic regulative principles, you have eaten the remnants of food offered to the Lord.

Text 235: ‘When a person takes shelter of the lotus feet of the Supreme Personality of Godhead without reservation, the unlimited, merciful Lord bestows His causeless mercy upon him. Thus he can pass over the insurmountable ocean of nescience. Those whose intelligence is fixed in the bodily conception, who think, “I am this body,” are fit food for dogs and jackals. The Supreme Lord never bestows His mercy upon such people.’ ”

Text 236: After speaking to Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya in this way, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu returned to His residence. From that day on, the Bhaṭṭācārya was free because his false pride had been dismantled.

Text 237: From that day on, Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya did not know anything but the lotus feet of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu, and from that day he could explain the revealed scriptures only in accordance with the process of devotional service.

Text 238: Seeing that Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya was firmly fixed in the cult of Vaiṣṇavism, Gopīnātha Ācārya, his brother-in-law, began to dance, clap his hands and chant, “Hari! Hari!”

Text 239: The next day, the Bhaṭṭācārya went to visit the temple of Lord Jagannātha, but before he reached the temple, he went to see Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

Text 240: When he met Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu, the Bhaṭṭācārya fell down flat to offer Him respects. After offering various prayers to Him, he spoke of his previous bad disposition with great humility.

Text 241: Then the Bhaṭṭācārya asked Caitanya Mahāprabhu, “Which item is most important in the execution of devotional service?” The Lord replied that the most important item was the chanting of the holy name of the Lord.

Text 242: ‘In this age of quarrel and hypocrisy, the only means of deliverance is the chanting of the holy names of the Lord. There is no other way. There is no other way. There is no other way.’ ”

Text 243: Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu very elaborately explained the harer nāma verse of the Bṛhan-nāradīya Purāṇa, and Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya was struck with wonder to hear His explanation.

Text 244: Gopīnātha Ācārya reminded Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya, “My dear Bhaṭṭācārya, what I foretold to you has now taken place.”

Text 245: Offering his obeisances to Gopīnātha Ācārya, the Bhaṭṭācārya said, “Because I am related to you and you are a devotee, by your mercy the Lord has shown mercy to me.

Text 246: “You are a first-class devotee, whereas I am in the darkness of logical arguments. Because of your relationship with the Lord, the Lord has bestowed His benediction upon me.”

Text 247: Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu was very pleased with this humble statement. After embracing the Bhaṭṭācārya, He said, “Now go see Lord Jagannātha in the temple.”

Text 248: After visiting the temple of Lord Jagannātha, Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya returned home with Jagadānanda and Dāmodara.

Text 249: The Bhaṭṭācārya brought large quantities of excellent food remnants blessed by Lord Jagannātha. All this prasādam was given to his own brāhmaṇa servant, along with Jagadānanda and Dāmodara.

Text 250: Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya then composed two verses on the leaf of a palm tree. Giving the palm leaf to Jagadānanda Prabhu, the Bhaṭṭācārya requested him to deliver it to Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

Text 251: Jagadānanda and Dāmodara then returned to Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, bringing Him both the prasādam and the palm leaf on which the verses were composed. But Mukunda Datta took the palm leaf from the hands of Jagadānanda before he could deliver it to Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

Text 252: Mukunda Datta then copied the two verses on the wall outside the room. After this, Jagadānanda took the palm leaf from Mukunda Datta and delivered it to Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

Text 253: As soon as Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu read the two verses, He immediately tore up the palm leaf. However, all the devotees read these verses on the outside wall, and they all kept them within their hearts. The verses read as follows.

Text 254: “Let me take shelter of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Śrī Kṛṣṇa, who has descended in the form of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu to teach us real knowledge, His devotional service and detachment from whatever does not foster Kṛṣṇa consciousness. He has descended because He is an ocean of transcendental mercy. Let me surrender unto His lotus feet.

Text 255: “Let my consciousness, which is like a honeybee, take shelter of the lotus feet of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who has just now appeared as Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya Mahāprabhu to teach the ancient system of devotional service to Himself. This system had almost been lost due to the influence of time.”

Text 256: These two verses composed by Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya will always declare his name and fame as loudly as a pounding drum, for they have become pearl necklaces around the necks of all devotees.

Text 257: Indeed, Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya became an unalloyed devotee of Caitanya Mahāprabhu; he did not know anything but the service of the Lord.

Text 258: The Bhaṭṭācārya always chanted the holy name of Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya, son of mother Śacī and reservoir of all good qualities. Indeed, chanting the holy names became his meditation.

Text 259: One day Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya came before Caitanya Mahāprabhu and, after offering obeisances, began to recite a verse.

Text 260: He began to quote one of Lord Brahmā’s prayers from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, but he changed two syllables at the end of the verse.

Text 261: The Bhaṭṭācārya recited, “‘One who seeks Your compassion and thus tolerates all kinds of adverse conditions due to the karma of his past deeds, who engages always in Your devotional service with his mind, words and body, and who always offers obeisances unto You is certainly a bona fide candidate for becoming Your unalloyed devotee.’ ”

Text 262: Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu immediately pointed out, “In that verse the word is ‘mukti-pade,’ but you have changed it to ‘bhakti-pade.’ What is your intention?”

Text 263: Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya replied, “The awakening of pure love of Godhead, which is the result of devotional service, far surpasses liberation from material bondage. For those averse to devotional service, merging into the Brahman effulgence is a kind of punishment.”

Texts 264-265: The Bhaṭṭācārya continued, “The impersonalists, who do not accept the transcendental form of Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa, and the demons, who are always engaged in blaspheming and fighting with Him, are punished by being merged into the Brahman effulgence. But that does not happen to the person engaged in the devotional service of the Lord.

Text 266: “There are five kinds of liberation: sālokya, sāmīpya, sārūpya, sārṣṭi and sāyujya.

Text 267: “If there is a chance to serve the Supreme Personality of Godhead, a pure devotee sometimes accepts the sālokya, sārūpya, sāmīpya or sārṣṭi forms of liberation, but never sāyujya.

Text 268: “A pure devotee does not like even to hear about sāyujya-mukti, which inspires him with fear and hatred. Indeed, the pure devotee would rather go to hell than merge into the effulgence of the Lord.”

Text 269: Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya continued, “There are two kinds of sāyujya-mukti: merging into the Brahman effulgence and merging into the personal body of the Lord. Merging into the Lord’s body is even more abominable than merging into His effulgence.”

Text 270: Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya concluded, “‘Even though he is offered all kinds of liberation, the pure devotee does not accept them. He is fully satisfied engaging in the service of the Lord.’ ”

Text 271: Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu replied, “The word ‘mukti-pade’ has another meaning. ‘Mukti-pada’ directly refers to the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

Text 272: “All kinds of liberation exist under the feet of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; therefore He is known as mukti-pada. According to another meaning, mukti is the ninth subject, and the Supreme Personality of Godhead is the shelter of liberation.

Text 273: “Since I can understand Kṛṣṇa according to these two meanings,” Caitanya Mahāprabhu said, “what point is there in changing the verse?”
Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya replied, “I was not able to give that reading to the verse.

Text 274: “Although Your explanation is correct, it should not be used, because there is ambiguity in the word ‘mukti-pada.’

Text 275: “The word ‘mukti’ refers to five kinds of liberation. But its direct meaning usually conveys the idea of becoming one with the Lord.

Text 276: “The very sound of the word ‘mukti’ immediately induces hate and fear, but when we say the word ‘bhakti,’ we naturally feel transcendental bliss within the mind.”

Text 277: Upon hearing this explanation, the Lord began to laugh and, with great pleasure, immediately embraced Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya very firmly.

Text 278: Indeed, that very person who had been accustomed to reading and teaching Māyāvāda philosophy was now even hating the word “mukti.” This was possible only by the mercy of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

Text 279: As long as it does not turn iron into gold by its touch, no one can recognize an unknown stone to be a touchstone.

Text 280: Upon seeing transcendental Vaiṣṇavism in Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya, everyone could understand that Lord Caitanya was none other than Kṛṣṇa, the son of Nanda Mahārāja.

Text 281: After this incident, all the inhabitants of Jagannātha Purī, headed by Kāśī Miśra, came to take shelter of the lotus feet of the Lord.

Text 282: Later I shall describe how Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya always engaged in the service of the Lord.

Text 283: I shall also describe in full detail how Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya perfectly rendered service to Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu by offering Him alms.

Texts 284-285: If one hears with faith and love these pastimes concerning Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu’s meeting with Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya, he very soon is freed from the net of speculation and fruitive activity and attains the shelter of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu’s lotus feet.

Text 286: Praying at the lotus feet of Śrī Rūpa and Śrī Raghunātha, always desiring their mercy, I, Kṛṣṇadāsa, narrate Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta, following in their footsteps.

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