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The Activities of Sākṣi-gopāla

Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura gives the following summary of the fifth chapter in his Amṛta-pravāha-bhāṣya. After passing through Yājapura, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu reached the town of Kaṭaka (Cuttack) and there went to see the temple of Sākṣi-gopāla. While there, He heard the story of Sākṣi-gopāla from the mouth of Śrī Nityānanda Prabhu.

Once there were two brāhmaṇas, one elderly and the other young, who were inhabitants of a place known as Vidyānagara. After touring many places of pilgrimage, the two brāhmaṇas finally reached Vṛndāvana. The elderly brāhmaṇa was very satisfied with the service of the young brāhmaṇa, and he wanted to offer him his youngest daughter in marriage. The young brāhmaṇa received the promise of his elder before the Gopāla Deity of Vṛndāvana. Thus the Gopāla Deity acted as a witness. When the two brāhmaṇas returned to Vidyānagara, the younger brāhmaṇa raised the question of this marriage, but the elderly brāhmaṇa, due to obligations to his friends and wife, answered that he could not remember his promise. Because of this, the younger brāhmaṇa returned to Vṛndāvana and narrated the whole story to Gopālajī. Thus Gopālajī, being obliged by the young man’s devotional service, accompanied him to southern India. Gopālajī followed the younger brāhmaṇa, who could hear the tinkling sound of Gopālajī’s ankle bells. When all the respectable gentlemen of Vidyānagara were assembled, Gopālajī testified to the promise of the elderly brāhmaṇa. Thus the marriage was performed. Later, the king of that country constructed a fine temple for Gopāla.

Afterwards, King Puruṣottama-deva of Orissa was insulted by the King of Vidyānagara, who refused to give him his daughter in marriage and called him a sweeper of Lord Jagannātha. With the help of Lord Jagannātha, King Puruṣottama-deva fought the King of Vidyānagara and defeated him. Thus he took charge of both the King’s daughter and his kingdom as well. At that time, Gopālajī, being very much obligated by the devotional service of King Puruṣottama-deva, was brought to the town of Kaṭaka.

After hearing this narration, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu visited the temple of Gopāla in great ecstasy of love of God. From Kaṭaka He went to Bhuvaneśvara and saw the temple of Lord Śiva. In this way, He gradually arrived at Kamalapura, and on the banks of the Bhārgī River He came to the temple of Lord Śiva, where He entrusted His sannyāsa staff to Nityānanda Prabhu. However, Nityānanda Prabhu broke the staff into three pieces and threw it into the Bhārgī River at a place known as Āṭhāranālā. Being angry at not getting His staff back, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu left the company of Nityānanda Prabhu and went alone to see the Jagannātha temple.

Text 1: I offer my respectful obeisances unto the Supreme Personality of God [brahmaṇya-deva], who appeared as Sākṣi-gopāla to benefit a brāhmaṇa. For one hundred days He traveled through the country, walking on His own legs. Thus His activities are wonderful.

Text 2: All glories to Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu! All glories to Lord Nityānanda Prabhu! All glories to Śrī Advaita Prabhu! And all glories to all the devotees of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu!

Text 3: Walking and walking, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and His party finally arrived at Yājapura, on the river Vaitaraṇī. There He saw the temple of Varāhadeva and offered His obeisances unto Him.

Text 4: In the temple of Varāhadeva, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu engaged in chanting and dancing and offered prayers. He passed that night in the temple.

Text 5: Afterwards, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu went to the town of Kaṭaka to see the temple of the witness Gopāla. When He saw the Deity of Gopāla, He was very much pleased by His beauty.

Text 6: While there, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu engaged in chanting and dancing for some time, and being overwhelmed, He offered many prayers to Gopāla.

Text 7: That night Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu stayed in the temple of Gopāla, and along with all the devotees, He heard the narration of the witness Gopāla with great pleasure.

Text 8: Previously, when Nityānanda Prabhu had toured all over India to see different places of pilgrimage, He also had come to see Sākṣi-gopāla at Kaṭaka.

Text 9: At that time, Nityānanda Prabhu had heard the story of Sākṣi-gopāla from the townspeople. He now recited this again, and Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu heard the narration with great pleasure.

Text 10: Formerly at Vidyānagara in South India there were two brāhmaṇas who made a long tour to see different places of pilgrimage.

Text 11: First of all they visited Gayā, then Kāśī, then Prayāga. Finally, with great pleasure, they came to Mathurā.

Text 12: After reaching Mathurā, they started visiting the different forests of Vṛndāvana and came to Govardhana Hill. They visited all twelve forests [vanas] and at last came to the town of Vṛndāvana.

Text 13: In the village of Pañcakrośī Vṛndāvana, at the site where the Govinda temple is now situated, there was a great temple where gorgeous worship of Gopāla was performed.

Text 14: After taking baths at different bathing places along the river Yamunā, such as Keśī-ghāṭa and Kāliya-ghāṭa, the pilgrims visited the temple of Gopāla. Afterwards, they took rest in that temple.

Text 15: The beauty of the Gopāla Deity stole away their minds, and feeling great happiness, they remained there for two or four days.

Text 16: One of the two brāhmaṇas was an old man, and the other was young. The young man was assisting the old one.

Text 17: Indeed, the young brāhmaṇa always rendered service to the older one, and the old man, being very satisfied with his service, was pleased with him.

Text 18: The older man told the younger, “You have rendered various types of service to me. You have assisted me in traveling to all these places of pilgrimage.

Text 19: “Even my own son does not render such service. By your mercy, I did not become fatigued while on this tour.

Text 20: “If I did not show you any respect, I would be ungrateful. Therefore, I promise to give you my daughter in charity.”

Text 21: The younger brāhmaṇa replied, “My dear sir, please hear me. You are saying something very unusual. Such a thing never happens.

Text 22: “You are a most aristocratic family man, well educated and very rich. I am not at all aristocratic, and I am without a decent education and have no wealth.

Text 23: “Sir, I am not a suitable bridegroom for your daughter. I render service to you only for the satisfaction of Kṛṣṇa.

Text 24: “Lord Kṛṣṇa is very much pleased by service rendered to brāhmaṇas, and when the Lord is pleased, the opulence of one’s devotional service increases.”

Text 25: The older brāhmaṇa replied, “My dear boy, do not doubt me. I will give you my daughter in charity. I have already decided this.”

Text 26: The young brāhmaṇa said, “You have a wife and sons, and you have a large circle of relatives and friends.

Text 27: “Without the consent of all your friends and relatives, it is not possible to give me your daughter in charity. Just consider the story of Queen Rukmiṇī and her father, Bhīṣmaka.

Text 28: “King Bhīṣmaka wanted to give his daughter, Rukmiṇī, in charity to Kṛṣṇa, but Rukmī, his eldest son, objected. Therefore he could not carry out his decision.”

Text 29: The elderly brāhmaṇa said, “My daughter is my own property. If I choose to give my property to someone, who has the power to stop me?

Text 30: “My dear boy, I will give my daughter to you in charity, and I will neglect the position of all others. Don’t doubt me in this regard; just accept my proposal.”

Text 31: The younger brāhmaṇa replied, “If you have decided to give your young daughter to me, then say so before the Gopāla Deity.”

Text 32: Coming before Gopāla, the elderly brāhmaṇa said, “My dear Lord, please witness that I have given my daughter to this boy.”

Text 33: Then the younger brāhmaṇa addressed the Deity, saying, “My dear Lord, You are my witness. I shall call for You to testify if it is necessary later on.”

Text 34: After these talks, the two brāhmaṇas started for home. As usual, the young brāhmaṇa accompanied the elderly brāhmaṇa as if the older brāhmaṇa were a guru [spiritual master] and rendered him service in various ways.

Text 35: After returning to Vidyānagara, each brāhmaṇa went to his respective home. After some time, the elderly brāhmaṇa became very anxious.

Text 36: He began to think, “I have given my word to a brāhmaṇa in a holy place, and what I promised will certainly come to pass. I must now disclose this to my wife, sons, other relatives and friends.”

Text 37: Thus one day the elderly brāhmaṇa called for a meeting of all his relatives and friends, and before them all he narrated what had taken place in front of Gopāla.

Text 38: When those who belonged to the family circle heard the narration of the old brāhmaṇa, they made exclamations showing their disappointment. They all requested that he not make such a proposal again.

Text 39: They unanimously agreed, “If you offer your daughter to a degraded family, your aristocracy will be lost. When people hear of this, they will make jokes and laugh at you.”

Text 40: The elderly brāhmaṇa said, “How can I undo the promise I made in a holy place while on pilgrimage? Whatever may happen, I must give him my daughter in charity.”

Text 41: The relatives unanimously said, “If you give your daughter to that boy, we shall give up all connection with you.” Indeed, his wife and sons declared, “If such a thing happens, we shall take poison and die.”

Text 42: The elderly brāhmaṇa said, “If I do not give my daughter to the young brāhmaṇa, he will call Śrī Gopālajī as a witness. Thus he will take my daughter by force, and in that case my religious principles will become meaningless.”

Text 43: His son replied, “The Deity may be a witness, but He is in a distant country. How can He come to bear witness against you? Why are you so anxious over this?

Text 44: “You do not have to flatly deny that you spoke such a thing. There is no need to make a false statement. Simply say that you do not remember what you said.

Text 45: “If you simply say, ‘I do not remember,’ I shall take care of the rest. By argument, I shall defeat the young brāhmaṇa.”

Text 46: When the elderly brāhmaṇa heard this, his mind became very much agitated. Feeling helpless, he simply turned his attention to the lotus feet of Gopāla.

Text 47: The elderly brāhmaṇa prayed, “My dear Lord Gopāla, I have taken shelter of Your lotus feet, and therefore I request You to please protect my religious principles from disturbance and at the same time save my kinsmen from dying.”

Text 48: The next day, the elderly brāhmaṇa was thinking deeply about this matter when the young brāhmaṇa came to his house.

Text 49: The young brāhmaṇa came to him and offered respectful obeisances. Then, very humbly folding his hands, he spoke as follows.

Text 50: “You have promised to give your daughter in charity to me. Now you do not say anything. What is your conclusion?”

Text 51: After the young brāhmaṇa submitted this statement, the elderly brāhmaṇa remained silent. Taking this opportunity, his son immediately came out with a stick to strike the younger man.

Text 52: The son said, “Oh, you are most degraded! You want to marry my sister, just like a dwarf who wants to catch the moon!”

Text 53: Seeing a stick in the hand of the son, the younger brāhmaṇa fled. The next day, however, he gathered together all the people of the village.

Text 54: All the people of the village then called for the elderly brāhmaṇa and brought him to their meeting place. The young brāhmaṇa then began to speak before them as follows.

Text 55: “This gentleman has promised to hand over his daughter to me, yet now he does not follow his promise. Please ask him about his behavior.”

Text 56: All the people gathered there asked the elderly brāhmaṇa, “If you have already promised to give him your daughter in charity, why are you not fulfilling your promise? You have given your word of honor.”

Text 57: The elderly brāhmaṇa said, “My dear friends, please hear what I have to submit. I do not exactly remember making a promise like that.”

Text 58: When the elderly brāhmaṇa’s son heard this, he took the opportunity to juggle some words. Becoming very impudent, he stood before the assembly and spoke as follows.

Text 59: “While touring various holy places of pilgrimage, my father carried much money. Seeing the money, this rogue decided to take it away.

Text 60: “There was no one besides this man with my father. Giving him an intoxicant known as dhuturā to eat, this rogue made my father mad.

Text 61: “Having taken all my father’s money, this rogue claimed that it was taken by some thief. Now he is claiming that my father has promised to give him his daughter in charity.

Text 62: “All of you assembled here are gentlemen. Please judge whether it is befitting to offer this poor brāhmaṇa my father’s daughter.”

Text 63: Hearing all these statements, all the people gathered there became a little doubtful. They thought it quite possible that because of attraction for riches one might give up his religious principles.

Text 64: At that time the young brāhmaṇa said, “My dear gentlemen, please hear. Just to gain victory in an argument, this man is lying.

Text 65: “Being very satisfied with my service, this brāhmaṇa said to me of his own accord, ‘I promise to hand over my daughter to you.’

Text 66: “At that time I forbade him to do this, telling him, ‘O best of the brāhmaṇas, I am not a fit husband for your daughter.

Text 67: ‘Whereas you are a learned scholar, a rich man belonging to an aristocratic family, I am a poor man, uneducated and with no claim to aristocracy.’

Text 68: “Still this brāhmaṇa insisted. Again and again he asked me to accept his proposal, saying, ‘I have given you my daughter. Please accept her.’

Text 69: “I then said, ‘Please hear. You are a learned brāhmaṇa. Your wife, friends and relatives will never agree to this proposal.

Text 70: ‘My dear sir, you will not be able to fulfill your promise. Your promise will be broken.’ Yet, again and again the brāhmaṇa emphasized his promise.

Text 71: ‘I have offered you my daughter. Do not hesitate. She is my daughter, and I shall give her to you. Who can forbid me?’

Text 72: “At that time I concentrated my mind and requested the brāhmaṇa to make the promise before the Gopāla Deity.

Text 73: “Then this gentleman said in front of the Gopāla Deity, ‘My dear Lord, please bear witness. I have offered my daughter to this brāhmaṇa in charity.’

Text 74: “Accepting the Gopāla Deity as my witness, I then submitted the following at His lotus feet.

Text 75: ‘If this brāhmaṇa later hesitates to give me his daughter, my dear Lord, I shall call on You as a witness. Please note this with care and attention.’

Text 76: “Thus I have called upon a great personality in this transaction. I have asked the Supreme Godhead to be my witness. The entire world accepts the words of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.”

Texts 77-78: Taking this opportunity, the elderly brāhmaṇa immediately confirmed that this was really true. He said, “If Gopāla personally comes here to serve as a witness, I shall surely give my daughter to the young brāhmaṇa.”

Text 79: The elderly brāhmaṇa thought, “Since Lord Kṛṣṇa is very merciful, He will certainly come to prove my statement.”

Text 80: The atheistic son thought, “It is not possible for Gopāla to come and bear witness.” Thinking thus, the father and son agreed.

Text 81: The young brāhmaṇa took this opportunity to speak: “Please write this down on paper in black and white so that you may not again change your word of honor.”

Text 82: All the assembled people got this statement down in black and white and, taking the signatures of agreement from both of them, served as the mediators.

Text 83: The young brāhmaṇa then said, “Will all you gentlemen present please hear me? This elderly brāhmaṇa is certainly truthful and is following religious principles.

Text 84: “He had no desire to break his promise, but fearing that his kinsmen would commit suicide, he deviated from the truth.

Text 85: “By the piety of the elderly brāhmaṇa, I shall call the Supreme Personality of Godhead as a witness. Thus I shall keep his truthful promise intact.”

Text 86: Hearing the emphatic statement of the younger brāhmaṇa, some atheists in the meeting began to cut jokes. However, someone else said, “After all, the Lord is merciful, and if He likes, He can come.”

Text 87: After the meeting, the young brāhmaṇa started for Vṛndāvana. Upon arriving there, he first offered his respectful obeisances to the Deity and then narrated everything in full detail.

Text 88: He said, “My Lord, You are the protector of brahminical culture, and You are also very merciful. Therefore, kindly show Your great mercy by protecting the religious principles of us two brāhmaṇas.

Text 89: “My dear Lord, I am not thinking to become happy by getting the daughter as a bride. I am simply thinking that the brāhmaṇa has broken his promise, and that is giving me great pain.”

Text 90: The young brāhmaṇa continued, “My dear Sir, You are very merciful and You know everything. Therefore, kindly be a witness in this case. A person who knows things as they are and still does not bear witness becomes involved in sinful activities.”

Text 91: Lord Kṛṣṇa replied, “My dear brāhmaṇa, go back to your home and call a meeting of all the men. In that meeting, just try to remember Me.

Text 92: “I shall certainly appear there, and at that time I shall protect the honor of both you brāhmaṇas by bearing witness to the promise.”

Text 93: The young brāhmaṇa replied, “My dear sir, even if You appear there as a four-handed Viṣṇu Deity, still, none of those people will believe in Your words.

Text 94: “Only if You go there in this form of Gopāla and speak the words from Your beautiful face will Your testimony be heard by all the people.”

Text 95: Lord Kṛṣṇa said, “I’ve never heard of a Deity’s walking from one place to another.”

Text 96: “My dear Lord, You are not a statue; You are directly the son of Mahārāja Nanda. Now, for the sake of the old brāhmaṇa, You can do something You have never done before.”

Text 97: Śrī Gopālajī then smiled and said, “My dear brāhmaṇa, just listen to Me. I shall walk behind you, and in this way I shall go with you.”

Text 98: The Lord continued, “Do not try to see Me by turning around. As soon as you see Me, I shall remain stationary in that very place.

Text 99: “You will know that I am walking behind you by the sound of My ankle bells.

Text 100: “Cook one kilo of rice daily and offer it. I shall eat that rice and follow behind you.”

Text 101: The next day, the brāhmaṇa begged permission from Gopāla and started for his country. Gopāla followed him, step by step.

Text 102: While Gopāla followed the young brāhmaṇa, the tinkling sound of His ankle bells could be heard. The brāhmaṇa became very pleased, and he cooked first-class rice for Gopāla to eat.

Text 103: The young brāhmaṇa walked and walked in this way until he eventually arrived in his own country. When he neared his own village, he began to think as follows.

Text 104: “I have now come to my village, and I shall go to my home and tell all the people that the witness has arrived.”

Text 105: The brāhmaṇa then began to think that if the people didn’t directly see the Gopāla Deity, they would not believe that He had arrived. “But even if Gopāla stays here,” he thought, “there is still nothing to fear.”

Text 106: Thinking this, the brāhmaṇa turned to look back, and He saw that Gopāla, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, was standing there smiling.

Text 107: The Lord told the brāhmaṇa, “Now you can go home. I shall stay here and shall not leave.”

Text 108: The young brāhmaṇa then went to the town and informed all the people about Gopāla’s arrival. Hearing this, the people were struck with wonder.

Text 109: All the townspeople went to see the witness Gopāla, and when they saw the Lord actually standing there, they all offered their respectful obeisances.

Text 110: When the people arrived, they were very pleased to see the beauty of Gopāla, and when they heard that He had actually walked there, they were all surprised.

Text 111: Then the elderly brāhmaṇa, being very pleased, came forward and immediately fell like a stick in front of Gopāla.

Text 112: Thus in the presence of all the townspeople, Lord Gopāla bore witness that the elderly brāhmaṇa had offered his daughter in charity to the young brāhmaṇa.

Text 113: After the marriage ceremony was performed, the Lord informed both brāhmaṇas, “You two brāhmaṇas are My eternal servants, birth after birth.”

Text 114: The Lord continued, “I have become very much pleased by the truthfulness of you both. Now you can ask for a benediction.” Thus with great pleasure the two brāhmaṇas begged for a benediction.

Text 115: The brāhmaṇas said, “Please remain here so that people all over the world will know how merciful You are to Your servants.”

Text 116: Lord Gopāla stayed, and the two brāhmaṇas engaged in His service. After hearing of the incident, many people from different countries began to come to see Gopāla.

Text 117: Eventually the King of that country heard this wonderful story, and he also came to see Gopāla and thus became very satisfied.

Text 118: The King constructed a nice temple, and regular service was executed. Gopāla became very famous under the name of Sākṣi-gopāla [the witness Gopāla].

Text 119: Thus Sākṣi-gopāla stayed in Vidyānagara and accepted service for a very long time.

Text 120: Later there was a fight, and this country was conquered by King Puruṣottama-deva of Orissa.

Text 121: That King was victorious over the King of Vidyānagara, and he took possession of his throne, the Māṇikya-siṁhāsana, which was bedecked with many jewels.

Text 122: King Puruṣottama-deva was a great devotee and was advanced in the civilization of the Āryans. He begged at the lotus feet of Gopāla, “Please come to my kingdom.”

Text 123: When the King begged Him to come to his kingdom, Gopāla, who was already obliged for his devotional service, accepted his prayer. Thus the King took the Gopāla Deity and went back to Kaṭaka.

Text 124: After winning the Māṇikya throne, King Puruṣottama-deva took it to Jagannātha Purī and presented it to Lord Jagannātha. In the meantime, he also established regular worship of the Gopāla Deity at Kaṭaka.

Text 125: When the Gopāla Deity was installed at Kaṭaka, the Queen of Puruṣottama-deva went to see Him and, with great devotion, presented various kinds of ornaments.

Text 126: The Queen had a very valuable pearl, which she wore on her nose, and she wished to give it to Gopāla. She then began to think as follows.

Text 127: “If there were a hole in the Deity’s nose, I could transfer the pearl to Him.”

Text 128: Considering this, the Queen offered her obeisances to Gopāla and returned to her palace. That night she dreamed that Gopāla appeared and began to speak to her as follows.

Text 129: “During My childhood My mother made a hole in My nose and with great endeavor set a pearl there.

Text 130: “That very hole is still there, and you can use it to set the pearl you desired to give Me.”

Text 131: After dreaming this, the Queen explained it to her husband, the King. Both the King and the Queen then went to the temple with the pearl.

Text 132: Seeing the hole in the nose of the Deity, they set the pearl there and, being very pleased, held a great festival.

Text 133: Since then, Gopāla has been situated in the city of Kaṭaka [Cuttack], and He has been known ever since as Sākṣi-gopāla.

Text 134: Thus Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu heard the narration of Gopāla’s activities. Both He and His personal devotees became very pleased.

Text 135: When Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu was sitting before the Gopāla Deity, all the devotees saw Him and the Deity as being of the same form.

Text 136: They were of the same complexion, and both had gigantic bodies. Both wore saffron cloth, and both were very grave.

Text 137: The devotees saw that both Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu and Gopāla were brilliantly effulgent and had eyes like lotuses. They were both absorbed in ecstasy, and both Their faces resembled full moons.

Text 138: When Nityānanda saw the Gopāla Deity and Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu in that way, He began to exchange remarks with the devotees, all of whom were smiling.

Text 139: Thus with great pleasure Lord Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu passed that night in the temple. After seeing the maṅgala-ārati ceremony in the morning, He started on His journey.

Text 140: [In his book Caitanya-bhāgavata] Śrīla Vṛndāvana dāsa Ṭhākura has very vividly described the places visited by the Lord on the way to Bhuvaneśvara.

Text 141: When Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu arrived at Kamalapura, He took His bath in the Bhārgīnadī River and left His sannyāsa staff in the hands of Lord Nityānanda.

Texts 142-143: When Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu went to the temple of Lord Śiva known as Kapoteśvara, Nityānanda Prabhu, who was keeping His sannyāsa staff in custody, broke the staff in three parts and threw it into the river Bhārgīnadī. Later this river became known as Daṇḍa-bhāṅgā-nadī.

Text 144: After seeing the temple of Jagannātha from a distant place, Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu immediately became ecstatic. After offering obeisances to the temple, He began to dance in the ecstasy of love of God.

Text 145: All the devotees became ecstatic in the association of Lord Caitanya, and thus absorbed in love of God, they were dancing and singing while going along the main road.

Text 146: Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu laughed, cried, danced and made many ecstatic vibrations and sounds. Although the temple was only six miles away, to Him the distance seemed thousands of miles.

Text 147: Thus walking and walking, the Lord eventually arrived at the place known as Āṭhāranālā. Arriving there, He expressed His external consciousness, speaking to Śrī Nityānanda Prabhu.

Text 148: When Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu had thus regained external consciousness, He asked Lord Nityānanda Prabhu, “Please return My staff.”

Text 149: Nityānanda Prabhu said, “When You fell down in ecstasy, I caught You, but both of Us together fell upon the staff.

Text 150: “Thus the staff broke under Our weight. Where the pieces have gone, I cannot say.

Text 151: “It is certainly because of My offense that Your staff was broken. Now You can punish Me on this account as You think proper.”

Text 152: After hearing the story about how His staff had been broken, the Lord expressed a little sadness and, displaying a bit of anger, began to speak as follows.

Text 153: Caitanya Mahāprabhu said, “You have all benefited Me by bringing Me to Nīlācala. However, My only possession was that one staff, and you have not kept it.

Text 154: “So all of you should go before or behind Me to see Lord Jagannātha. I shall not go with you.”

Text 155: Mukunda Datta told Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, “My Lord, You should go ahead and allow all the others to follow. We shall not go with You.”

Text 156: Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu then began to walk very swiftly before all the other devotees. No one could understand the real purpose of the two Lords, Caitanya Mahāprabhu and Nityānanda Prabhu.

Text 157: The devotees could not understand why Nityānanda Prabhu broke the staff, why Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu permitted Him to do so, or why, after permitting Him, Caitanya Mahāprabhu became angry.

Text 158: The pastime of the breaking of the staff is very deep. Only one whose devotion is fixed upon the lotus feet of the two Lords can understand it.

Text 159: The glories of Lord Gopāla, who is merciful to brāhmaṇas, are very great. The narration of Sākṣi-gopāla was spoken by Nityānanda Prabhu and heard by Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

Text 160: One who hears this narration of Lord Gopāla with faith and love very soon attains the lotus feet of Lord Gopāla.

Text 161: Praying at the lotus feet of Śrī Rūpa and Śrī Raghunātha, always desiring their mercy, I, Kṛṣṇadāsa, narrate Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta, following in their footsteps.

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